I CHRONICLES 11:4-5 ~ David and all the people of Israel went to the city of Jerusalem. Jerusalem was
Jebus at that time. The people living in that city were named Jebusites. The people that lived in
the city said to David, “You can’t get inside our city.” But David did defeat those people. David took over
the fortress of Zion. This place became the City of David.

(II SAMUEL 5:8 ~ 8That day David said to his men, “If you want to
defeat the Jebusites, go up through
the water shaft)

The watercourse that David’s men used to get inside the city of Jebus (which was later renamed
Jerusalem) still exists.  It is a sloping tunnel with steps cut down through solid rock from the top of the
hill to Gihon Spring at the east base of the hill.  This gave access within the walls to a water supply and
to the city.  The hill was surrounded by a wall 24 feet thick, impregnable until David discovered this
secret passage from the spring into the city.  It was discovered by archaeologist Warren, so today is
called the Warren Shaft.  Inside are steps leading up to the city from the Gihon Spring.

I CHRONICLES 11:7-8 ~ Then David made his home in the fortress. That is why it is named the City of
 David built the city around the fort. He built it from the Millo to the wall around the city. Joab
repaired the other parts of the city.

400 feet of the remains of the old Jebus foundations are still visible under David’s masonry.  More
recently the ruins of a house built during the time the Jebusites controlled the fortress has been

I CHRONICLES 11:16-17 ~ Another time, David was in the fortress, and a group of Philistine soldiers
was in Bethlehem. David was thirsty {for some water from his home town}. So he said, “I wish someone
could give me some water from that
well near the city gate in Bethlehem.”

The picture at the right shows the well just inside the city wall of Bethlehem.  It was taken in the
late 1800s before the city grew and was commercialized.

II CHRONICLES 11:5-7~ Rehoboam lived in Jerusalem. He built strong cities in Judah to defend
against attacks. He repaired the cities of Bethlehem, Etam, Tekoa, Beth Zur, Soco, Adullam, Gath,
Mareshah, Ziph, Adoraim,
Lachish, Azekah,

The ruins of several of these cities have already been noted above:  Bethlehem, Adullam, Gath, Ziph,
and Hebron.  Two more of these cities have been verified in the Lachish letters.  

The Lachish letters were written on clay shards at a later time by the commander of Lachish while it was
being attacked and are currently on display at the British Museum in London.   Among them were
Lachish and Azekah.  Letter IV of the Lachish letters said this:

“I will send for him tomorrow at daylight. And let it be known to my master that we will be looking for the
signals from
Lachish, according to the instructions which he has given, for no signals from Azekah
have been seen.”

II CHRONICLES 12:2-4 ~ Shishak attacked the city of Jerusalem in the fifth year that Rehoboam was
Shishak was the king of Egypt.... Shishak had 12,000 chariots, 60,000 horse riders, and an
army that no person could count. In Shishak’s large army there were Libyan soldiers, Sukkite soldiers,
and Ethiopian soldiers.  Shishak
defeated the strong cities of Judah. Then Shishak brought his army
to Jerusalem.

Pharaoh Shishak’s record of this campaign is inscribed on the south wall of the great Temple of
Amon at Karnak in which he is depicted as presenting
156 cities of Palestine to his god Amon.  This
was in 609 BC.  Although the names of some of the cities are hard to read, here are a few:  Taanach,
Beth-Shean, Rehob, Mahanaim, Gibeon, Beth-Horon, Megiddo, and Arad.

Further, Part of a monument
Shishak set up in Megiddo has been discovered.  Excavations of
Megiddo are shown above.  Megiddo was a very strategic city.  

II CHRONICLES 26:3, 15 ~ Uzziah was 16 years old when he became king. He ruled 52 years in
Jerusalem …. Uzziah became famous. People knew his name in far away places. He had much help
and became a powerful king.  

Tiglath Pileser recorded his war victories on engraved wall panels (reliefs) in his palace.  Many of
them are on display at the British Museum in London.  On one of them, he brags that he took cities
away from the powerful King Azariah/Uzzah.

"Nineteen districts of the city of Hamath, together with the towns in their circuit, situated on the sea of
the setting sun [the Mediterranean], which in their faithlessness had joined faith with
Azariah, I restored
to the territory of the land of Asshur."

In another place he lists Azariah as "Azariah the Judean."

In still another panel, it is stated that in the fifth year of
Tiglath Pileser's reign, he enjoyed a victory
Azariah (Uzziah), king of Judah.  He was apparently referring to the cities he took from him.

Two seals bearing the name of Uzziah have been discovered along with several other seals at El-
kheleifeh ~ Gibeon Ezer.  

One says: “Abyaw, steward of Uzziah”

The other says: “Shebnayahu, official to Uzziah”

II CHRONICLES 26:16, 18, 20-21, 23     But when Uzziah became strong, his pride caused him to be
destroyed. ..He went into the Lord’s temple to burn incense on the altar for burning incense….“
it is not your job to burn incense to the Lord....priests were trained for holy service to burn incense"....
They could see the
leprosy on his forehead. The priests quickly forced Uzziah out from the temple....
Uzziah the king was a leper.

died and was buried near his ancestors. Uzziah was buried in the field near the kings' burial
. Why? Because the people said, “Uzziah has leprosy.”

Notice, Uzziah was not buried with his ancestors, but near them.  He was also not buried in the kings'
burial places, but near them.  

Archaeologist E. I. Sukenik of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem discovered the grave marker of
Uzziah on the Mount of Olives across the valley from Jerusalem.  This is what is engraved on it:

“Hither were brought the bones of Uzziah, king of Judah.”

It is on display in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

II CHRONICLES 26:23; 27:1, 4 ~ And Jotham became the new king in Uzziah’s place. Jotham was
Uzziah’s son. Jotham King of Judah Jotham was 25 years old when he became king. He ruled 16 years
in Jerusalem....
Jotham also built towns in the hill country of Judah. Jotham built fortresses and
in the forests.  

Also among the seals found at El-kheleifeh ~ Gibeon Ezer ~ was a signate ring of Jothan.  It was
found by Nelson Glueck of Hebrew Union College, the Jewish Institute of religion.  

I CHRONICLES 27:9; 28:1 ~ Ahaz became the king in Jotham’s place. Ahaz was Jotham’s son. Ahaz
King of Judah Ahaz was 20 years old when he became king. He ruled 16 years in Jerusalem.

Two clay seal imprints called bulla have been discovered bearing the name of King Ahaz.  

The first seal, is displayed by the Yale University library, and reads: “Ushna, an attendant of

Ahaz's second seal is in the Shlomo Moussaieff Collection, London, is rust colored.  The seal reads:
Ahaz (son of) Jotham, Judah’s king.

I CHRONICLES 28:16, 20-21    ~ King Ahaz asked the king of Assyria to help him....Tiglath Pileser
king of Assyria
came and gave Ahaz trouble instead of helping him. Ahaz took some valuable things
from the Lord’s temple and from the king’s house and from the prince’s house. Ahaz
gave those things
to the king of Assyria. But that didn’t help Ahaz.

An inscription on one of the wall panels of Tiglath-Pileser III in his palace giving  accounts of his
battles and making of minor kings his puppets reads as follows:

“From these I received tribute . . . Ahaz, the king of Judah . . . including gold, silver, iron, fine cloth
and many garments made from wool that was dyed in purple.”

II CHRONICLES 28:27; 29:1 ~ Hezekiah became the new king in Ahaz’s place. Hezekiah was Ahaz’s
Hezekiah became king when he was 25 years old. He ruled 29 years in Jerusalem.

Seal impressions have been found in modern Israel relating to King Hezekiah on storage jar handles
excavated from ruins left in Sennacherib's destruction and  immediately above that layer.

Also, clay impressions from the
signet ring (bulla) off of royal sealed documents, some that may have
belonged to Hezekiah himself .

II CHRONICLES 32:1~ After all these things that Hezekiah had faithfully done happened, Sennacherib
king of Assyria
came to attack the country of Judah. Sennacherib and his army camped outside the
fortresses.  He did this so he could make plans to defeat those
towns. Sennacherib wanted to win
those towns for himself.

Assyrian King Sennacherib’s account of his invasion of Judah is on a clay prism now on display at the
Oriental Institute Museum of Chicago.  It reads as follows in column three, lines 18-27:

18As for Hezekiah the Judahite, 19who did not submit to my yoke: forty-six of his strong, walled cities,
as well as 20the small towns in their area, 21which were without number, by levelling with battering-rams
22and by bringing up seige-engines, and by attacking and storming on foot, 23by mines, tunnels, and
breeches, I besieged and took them. 24200,150 people, great and small, male and female, 25horses,
mules, asses, camels, 26cattle and sheep without number, I brought away from them 27and counted as

II CHRONICLES 32:2 ~ Hezekiah knew that Sennacherib came to[ward] Jerusalem to attack it. Then
Hezekiah talked to his officials and army officers. They all agreed to
stop the waters of the water
springs outside the city.
Those officials and army officers helped Hezekiah.

Hezekiah made sure that Jerusalem had water during the months or years he anticipated Sennacherib
would be camped outside the city trying to lay siege to it.  
Hezekiah's Water Tunnel (also called the
Siloam Tunnel) was dug underneath the City of David in Jerusalem before 701 BC during the reign of

Gihon Spring was at the east foot of Ophel Hill just outside the wall of Jerusalem.  Hezekiah’s
workmen cut a tunnel through solid rock under the hill, running 1700 feet SW from the spring
to the
Pool of Siloam inside the wall,
thus diverting the water of the Spring from its natural flow into the
Brook Kidron.  The tunnel is about 6 feet tall and 2 ½ feet wide.

Nineteen feet from the opening of the tunnel was an
inscription which is now in the Constantinople
Museum.  Apparently it was begun at both ends, and they worked toward each others' voices.  This is
what the inscriptions says:

"The Tunnel is completed.  And this is the story of the tunnel.  While the stone cutters were lifting up
the pick, each toward his neighbor (from opposite ends), and while they were yet 3 cubits apart, there
was heard a voice of one calling to another; and after that pick struck against pick, and the waters
flowed from the spring to the pool, 1200 cubits, and 100 cubits was the height of the rock above.”

II CHRONICLES 32:5 ~ Hezekiah made Jerusalem stronger. This is how he did it: He built again all the
parts of the wall that were broken down. He built towers on the wall. He also
built another wall outside
the first wall.
He built again the strong places on the east side of the old part of Jerusalem.

Parts of Hezekiah's second wall, sometimes also called the Broad Wall, enclosed the western hill
beside Old Jerusalem
, the City of David.  The new wall was 30 feet from the old inner wall.  It
increased the walled area of Jerusalem five-fold so that many citizens of Judea could move into the city
for protection.

II CHRONICLES 32:9a ~ Sennacherib king of Assyria and all his army were camped near the town of
Lachish so they could defeat it.

During all the fortifying of Jerusalem, Assyria's King Sennacherib was gradually working his way through
Judea destroying city after city, even of nearby kingdoms, so he could not call on anyone for help.  

Lines 31-36 of his prism reported his takeover of nearby kingdoms which he said the powerful Hezekiah
controlled.  On line 36 of his prism, he says, "
I laid upon him [Hezekiah] the surrender of their land and
imposts gifts for my majesty."

He then moved on to conquer the city of Lachish.  Now at the British Museum in London and pictured
here, is a small section of an alabaster panel from Sennacherib's palace in Nineveh that originally
measured about 8' tall by 80' long depicting his conquest of Lachish with the cuneiform text,
“Sennacherib, king of the world, king of Assyria, set upon his throne of state, and caused the spoil of
Lachish to pass before him.”

II CHRONICLES 32:9b,  17b-18 ~  Then Sennacherib sent his officers to Hezekiah king of Judah
and t
o all the people of Judah in Jerusalem.  This is what the king of Assyria said in those letters:
“The gods of the other nations could not stop me from destroying their people. In the same way
Hezekiah’s god won’t be able to stop me from destroying his people.” Then the king of Assyria’s officers
shouted loudly to
the people of Jerusalem that were on the city wall.

On Sennacherib's prism is this in column 3, lines 27-30, 37-40 is his account:

(Hezekiah) himself, like a caged bird 28I shut up in Jerusalem, his royal city. 29I threw up earthworks
against him‹ 30the one coming out of the city-gate, I turned back to his misery.  37As for Hezekiah,
38the terrifying splendor of my majesty overcame him, and 39the Arabs and his mercenary troops which
he had brought in to strengthen 40Jerusalem, his royal city, 41deserted him.

II CHRONICLES 32:21a ~ Then the Lord sent an angel to the king of Assyria’s camp. That angel killed
[disease?] all the soldiers and the leaders and the officers in the Assyrian army. So the king of Assyria
went back home to his own country, and his people were ashamed of him.

Sennacherib could not claim complete victory over Jerusalem.  All he had to brag about on his prism
was what Hezekiah sent out to him as recorded in II Kings of the Bible.  This is how the prism reads:

In addition to the thirty talents of gold and 42eight hundred talents of silver, gems, antimony, 43jewels,
large carnelians, ivory-inlaid couches, 44ivory-inlaid chairs, elephant hides, elephant tusks, 45ebony,
boxwood, all kinds of valuable treasures, 46as well as his daughters, his harem, his male and female
47musicians, which he had brought after me 48to Nineveh, my royal city. To pay tribute 49and to
accept servitude, he dispatched his messengers.

II CHRONICLES 32:21b ~ So the king of Assyria went back home to his own country, and his people
were ashamed of him. He went into the
temple of his god and some of his own sons killed him
there with a sword.

A clay tablet found in the ancient archives of Assyria and now on display at the British Museum in
London reads thusly:

"On the 20th day of the month Tebet, Sennacharib king of Assyria his son slew him in rebellion....On
the 18th day of Sivan Esar-haddon his son sat on the throne of Assyria."

II CHRONICLES 32:33; 33:1 ~ Manasseh became the new king in Hezekiah’s place. Manasseh was
Hezekiah’s son. Manasseh King of Judah Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king of
Judah. He was king for 55 years in Jerusalem.

An inscription of Esar-haddon, Assyrian king, 681-668 BC says, “I compelled 22 kings of the West Land
to provide building material for my palace.”  Among them, he names “Manasseh, king of Judah.”

II CHRONICLES 34:8-9 ~ So Josiah commanded the temple to be fixed so he could make Judah and
the temple clean. Those men came to
Hilkiah the high priest. They gave him the money that people
gave for God’s temple.

A seal bearing the name "Azariah son of Hilkiah" has been found   In 1975, nearly 250 clay seals
were discovered about 45 miles southwest of Jerusalem.  These seals were used to seal letters and
documents to make them officially from the person owning the seal.  Often the seal was also a ring.   

A bulla is the imprint from a signet ring with the person's seal.  The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the
Holy Land lists these bullae that have been unearthed: 50 in Samaria during the 1930s; 17 at Lachish
in 1966; 51 in Jerusalem in digs conducted by Yigal Shiloh; 128 in 1962 found in the Wadi ed-Daliyeh
Cave and a large cache of 2,000 bullae found in 1998 at Tel Kadesh. They are usually small, oval, clay
stamps that contain the name of the person responsible for the document that was sealed (and
occasionally the father of that person), the title or office of the sealer, and/or a picture of an animal or
some other artistic rendering.


history - 2

I KINGS 5:17; 6:7 ~ King Solomon commanded them to cut out big, expensive stones to be the
foundation for the temple. These stones were carefully cut....The workers used large stones to
build the
walls. The workers cut the stones at the place where they got them out of the ground. So
there was no noise of hammers, axes, or any other iron tools in the temple.

I KINGS 7:9-12 ~ All of these buildings were made with expensive
blocks of stone. These stones
were cut to the right size with a saw. They were cut in the front and in the back. These expensive
stones went from the foundation up to the top layer of the wall. Even the wall around the yard was
made with expensive
blocks of stone. The foundations were made with large, expensive stones.
Some of the
stones were 10 cubits long and others were 8 cubits long.

At the southeast corner of the Temple area, the wall rises 77 feet.  It is 156 feet.  Its cornerstone is
14’ long, 4’ high.  Solomon’s repairs (11:27) are plainly indicated.

Archaeologist Barkley discovered the
quarry from which Jerusalem’s great stones were taken. It is
now an immense cavern extending under the area close to where the temple was built.  The entrance
is near the Damascus gate.  Partly cut
stones are there; from which their methods of quarrying
were learned.  Little holes were cut in the rocks to hold candles by which the men worked in pitch

One of the methods for
hewing the stones was to carve broad slits along the rock face, and to
drive dry wooden wedges into them. Water was then poured over the dry wedges, so causing them to
swell. The resulting pressure then cracked the
stone along the slits. This primitive method of
quarrying was quite effective, and traces of it can still be found in the cave.

I KINGS 9:15,19; 10:26 ~ Then he built again the cities of Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer....King
Solomon also built cities where he could store grain and things. And he built places for his chariots
and his
horses....So Solomon had many, many chariots and horses. He had 1,400 chariots and
12,000 horses. Solomon built special cities for these chariots. So the chariots were kept in those
cities. King Solomon also kept some of the chariots with him in Jerusalem.

The Oriental Institute uncovered in Megiddo the ruins of two separate stable complexes where
Solomon kept his horses.  The buildings were about twenty-one meters long by eleven meters wide.
Separating the main corridor from outside aisles was a series of stone pillars.

Holes were bored into many of these pillars so that
horses could be tied to them. Also, the remains
of stone mangers were found in the buildings. These mangers were placed between the pillars to
feed the
horses.  The capacity of the northern buildings was about three hundred horses
altogether. Both complexes could hold from 450-480
horses combined.

(See Joshua above for pictures of Hazor and Gezer.)  

I KINGS 9:26-28; 10:14-15 ~  King Solomon also built ships at Ezion Geber. This town is near Elath
on the shore of the
Red Sea, in the land of Edom. King Hiram had some men who knew much about
the sea. Those men often traveled in ships. King Hiram sent those men to serve in
Solomon’s navy
and work with Solomon’s men. Solomon’s ships went to Ophir. The
ships brought about 31,500
pounds of gold back from Ophir to King Solomon....Every year King Solomon got about 79,920
pounds of gold. Besides the gold from the
cargo ships, he also got gold from the traders and
merchants, and from the kings of Arabia and governors of the land.

King Solomon made a navy of ships at Ezion-geber.  It was for his trade with Arabia, India and the
east coast of Africa.   
Ezion-geber was situated at the north end of the Gulf of Akahba on the Red
.  Archaeologist Nelson Glueck of the American Schools of Oriental Researcfh excavated the
ruins of Solomon’s smelters, furnaces, crucibles, and refineries there.  He also found copper and iron
ore deposits in the vicinity, of which
dishes, nails, spearheads and fishhooks were
manufactured and exported in exchange for ivory and gold.

Coral Island
has been identified as Ezion-geber.  Its harbor was obviously a busy port at one time.
The island is
7 miles (11 km) south of Eilat in Egyptian waters. The waters between the island and
the Sinai mainland are a natural anchorage, protecting ships.  Remains of two “dolphins,” (building
stones used as offshore piers) are underwater just outside the harbor. Goods were then ferried
across to jetties on the mainland, from where they could be sent northward on land.

A casemate wall and its nine towers going around perimeter may date to Solomonic times.  
Archaeologis Rothenberg found some pottery on the island that dated to Iron I (1200-930 B.C.).  

I KINGS 14:25-26 ~ During the fifth year that Rehoboam was king, King Shishak of Egypt fought
against Jerusalem.
Shishak took the treasures from the Lord’s temple and from the king’s palace.
He even took the gold shields that David had.

(II CHRONICLES 1:15; 12:2-4 ~ Shishak attacked the city of Jerusalem in the fifth year that
Rehoboam was king.
Shishak was the king of Egypt. Shishak had 12,000 chariots, 60,000 horse
riders, and an army that no person could count. In
Shishak’s large army there were Libyan soldiers,
Sukkite soldiers, and Ethiopian soldiers.
Shishak defeated the strong cities of Judah. Then Shishak
brought his army to Jerusalem.)

Egyptologists identified Shishak with Shoshenq I. Shoshenq I left behind explicit records of a
campaign into Canaan (scenes; a long list of Canaanite place-names from the Negev to Galilee;
stelae), including a stela [found] at Megiddo.  There is a detailed list of cities in the regions of Syria,
Philistia, Phoenicia, the Negev and the Kingdom of
Israel inscribed on the walls of temples of Amun
at al-Hibah and Karnak.

I KINGS 15:18-20 ~ So Asa took silver and gold from the treasuries of the Lord’s temple and the
king’s palace. He gave the silver and gold to his servants and sent them to
Ben Hadad, the king of
. Ben Hadad was the of Hezion. Damascus was Ben Hadad’s capital city. Asa sent this
message, “My father and your father had a peace agreement. Now I want to make a peace
agreement with you. I am sending you this gift of gold and silver. Please break your treaty with
Baasha the king of Israel so he will get out of my country and leave us alone.”
King Ben Hadad made
that agreement with King Asa and sent his army to fight against the Israelite towns of Ijon,
Dan, Abel
Beth Maacah, the towns near Lake Galilee, and the area of Naphtali.

In 1994, two more fragments from the inscription were found at Tel-Dan. The following is a
translation of the text that was found written in the early Aramaic language, similar to script found on
pottery dating back to the ninth century B.C.  In this translation, the letters found in brackets
represents a suggested reconstruction of what the words may have been.

... my father went forward ... he made battle at ... and he died, he went to ... king of [Is-] rael of old
was in my fathers land...
Hadad appointed me king. And Hadad went before me ... I embarked from
seven..... of my kingdom... And I killed ......kin[gs] .... [cha-] riots and horsemen numbering two
thousand...[He (or I) killed Jeho]ram (Joram) son of [Ahab]. the
king of Israel. [He (or I)] killed [Ahaz]
iahu son of [Jehoram kin-] g of the
House of David. And I turned their country into... other [...Jehu ru-]
led over
Is[rael] siege upon...

I KINGS 18:40 ~  Then Elijah said, “Get the prophets of Baal!  Don’t let any of them escape!” So the
people captured all the prophets. Then Elijah led them down to Kishon Creek. At that place he killed
all the prophets.

The Oriental Institute excavating Megiddo near Samaria found in the stratum of King Ahab’s time the
ruins of a
temple of Ashtoreth, goddess wife of Baal.  Their temples usually were not far apart.  
Just a few steps from this was a cemetery where many
jars were found containing the remains of
who had been sacrificed in the temple.  This shows the nature of Baal worship.  Prophets of
Baal and Ashtoreth were official
murderers of little children.  

I KINGS 19:15 ~ The Lord said, “Go back on the road that leads to the desert around Damascus. Go
Damascus, and anoint Hazael as king over Aram.

King Hazael (841-806 BC) was king of Aram (Syria) after Ben-Hadad II.  An ivory inlay fragment found
at Arslan Tash refers to "
My Lord Hazael".  

An inscription on a statue of him reads,  "Barhadad, son of
Hazael".  This ivory statuette came from
palace of Hazael the ancient king of Damascus. It was discovered in the ruins of Arslan Tash in
north Syria (ancient Hadatu). Several artifacts from the palace of Hazael are now in the Aleppo
Museum in Syria.

In 1994, two more fragments from the inscription were found at Tel-Dan. The entire inscription is
above.  Note line three, "Hadad appointed me king" and line four "Hadad went before me."

I KINGS 21:8 ~ Then Jezebel wrote some letters. She signed Ahab’s name to the letters. She used
Ahab’s own seal to
seal the letters. Then she sent them to the elders (leaders) and important men
who lived in the same town as Naboth.

The seal of Jezebel is in the  Israel Antiquities Authority Collection, exhibited at the Israel Museum,

I KINGS 22:39 ~ All the things that King Ahab did during the time he ruled are written in the book The
History of the Kings of Israel. And that book also tells about the
ivory that the king used to make his
palace more beautiful. And the book tells about the city that the king built.

An inscription of Shalmaneser (860-835 BC) mentions Ahab:  “At Karkar I destroyed…2,000 chariots
and 10,000 men of
Ahab, king of Israel.”  in this record of the Battle of Karkar (853 BC). Shalmaneser
III of Assyria memorialized the battle in an inscription in which he described his adversaries as a major
confederation of princes under Hadadezer (Ben-Hadad) of Syria.
"Ahab the Israelite" is named as
one of Shalmaneser's enemies.  

An expedition by Harvard University found in Samaria the ruins of
Ahab’s ivory house.  Its walls
had been faced with ivory. There were thousands of pieces of the most exquisitely carved and
panels, plaques, cabinets and couches.  Ahab’s house was just above the ruins of Omri’s

II KINGS 3:4-6 - Mesha was the king of Moab. Mesha owned many sheep. Mesha gave the wool of
100,000 lambs and 100,000 rams to the king of Israel. But when
Ahab died, the king of Moab broke
away from the rule of the king of Israel.  Then King Jehoram went out of Samaria and gathered
together all the men of Israel.

Mesha, king of Moab made his own record of this rebellion.  That record has been found and is
called the “
Moabite Stone.”  It was found in 1868 in Moab at Dibon, 20 miles east of the Dead Sea,
by F. A.Klein.  It is a bluish basalt stone 4’ high, 2’ wide, and 14” thick.  It is now in the Louvre
Museum in Paris.  

I, Mesha, king of Moab, made this monument to Chemosh [god of Moab] to commemorate
deliverance from Israel.  My father reigned over
Moab 30 years and I reigned after my father.  Omri,
king of Israel, oppressed
Moab many days, and his son [Ahab] after him.  But I warred against the
king of Israel and drove him out, and took his cities Medeba, Ataroth, Nebo and  Jahaz which he built
while he waged war against me.  I destroyed his cities and devoted the spoils to Chemosh and the
women and girls to Ashtar.  I built Qorhah with prisoners from Israel.  In Beth-Diblathaim I placed
sheep raisers.’

II KINGS 8:7-15 ~ Elisha went to Damascus. Ben Hadad king of Aram was sick. A person told Ben
“The man of God* has come here.”  Then the King Ben Hadad said to Hazael, “Take a gift,
and go to meet the man of God.....
Hazael went to Elisha. Hazael said, “Your follower, Ben Hadad
king of Aram
, sent me to you. .... Elisha answered, “I am crying because I know the bad things you
will do to the Israelites. You will burn their strong cities. You will kill their young men with swords. You
will kill their babies. You will split open their pregnant women.”
Hazael said, I am not a powerful man!  I
can’t do these great things!”  Elisha answered, “The Lord showed me that you will be king over
Hazael left Elisha, and went to his king.  But the next day, Hazael took a thick cloth and dipped
it in water. Then he put the cover on
Ben Hadad’s face {and smothered him}. Ben Hadad died and
Hazael became the new king

II KINGS 9:15 ~ King Joram had fought against Hazael, king of Aram.

Hazael’s succession to Ben-Hadad’s throne is corroborated in an inscription of Shalmaneser III, king
of Assyria.   It is inscribed on a black marble oblisk of the central palace of Nimrod, now in the British

“I fought with Ben-Hadad.  I accomplished his defeat.  Hazael, son of a nobody, seized his throne.  In
the 18th year of my reign for the 16th time I crossed the Euphrates.
Hazael of Damascus trusted to
the strength of his armies and mustered his troops in full force....To save his life, he retreated; I
pursued him; in Damascus, his royal city, I shut him up....Cities without number I wrecked, razed, and
burnt with fire. Their spoil beyond count I carried away. As far as the mountains of Baal-Rosh, which
is a headland of the sea....I marched; my royal likeness I there set up.
At that time I received the
tribute of the Syrians and Sidonians and of Yahua (Jehu) the son of Khumri (Omri)
"  (see more

II KINGS 9:30 ~ Jehu went to Jezreel, and Jezebel heard the news. She [painted her eyes] and fixed
hair. Then she stood by the window and looked out.

(I KINGS 16:30 ~ King...
Ahab also married Jezebel daughter of Ethbaal.

An expedition sponsored by Harvard University, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the British
School of Archaeology, and the Palestine Exploration Fund found in Samaria in the ruins of Ahab’s
“ivory house” the very
saucers, small stone boxes, in which Jezebel mixed her cosmetics.  They
had a number of small holes to contain the
various colors ~  kohl for black; turquoise for green;
ochre for red ~  and a central
depression for mixing.  They still had traces of red.

II KINGS 10:34-36 ~ All the other great things that Jehu did are written in the book The History of the
Kings of Israel....
Jehu’s son Jehoahaz became the new king of Israel after him. Jehu ruled over
Israel in Samaria for 28 years

Jehu appeared in Assyrian documents, notably in the Black Obelisk, where he was depicted as
kissing the ground in front of
Shalmaneser III. In the Assyrian documents he was simply referred to
as "
Jehu son of Omri" (The House of Omri ~ the Kingdom of Israel). This tribute is dated 841 BC.  
According to the Obelisk,
Jehu became subject to Assyria.

II KINGS 14:23 ~ Jeroboam son of Jehoash king of Israel began to rule in Samaria during the 15th
year that Amaziah son of Joash was king of Judah.
Jeroboam ruled 41 years.

At the ruins of Megiddo, a jasper seal was found with the following inscription:
“Shema servant of Jeroboam”

II KINGS 15:19-20 ~ Pul king of Assyria came to fight against Israel. Menahem gave Pul 75,000
pounds of silver. He did this so
Pul would support Menahem and make Menahem’s kingdom
stronger. Menahem raised the money by making all the rich and powerful men pay taxes. Menahem
taxed each man 20 ounces of silver. Then
Menahem gave the money to  the king of Assyria. So the
king of Assyria left, and did not stay there in Israel.

This occurred during the reign of Tiglath-PILeser, so scholars agree that PUL is a shortened version
of his name.  
Menahem’s tribute to Pul, king of Assyria is referred to in Assyrian inscriptions where
he says, “Tribute of
Menshem of Samaria…I received.”  Pul’s inscriptions also name Uzziah, Ahaz,
Pekahy, and Hoshea."

II KINGS 15:29  ~ Tiglath Pileser king of Assyria came to fight against Israel. This was during the
time that
Pekah was king of Israel. Tiglath Pileser captured Ijon, Abel Bethmaacah, Janoah,
Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, Galilee, and all the area of Naphtali.
Tiglath Pileser took the people from
these places as prisoners to Assyria.  
Hoshea son of Elah made plans against Pekah son of
Hoshea killed Pekah.  Then Hoshea became the new king after Pekah. This was during
the 20th year that Jotham son of
Uzziah {was king of Judah}.

An inscription on a wall in Tiglath-Pileser's palace in Nimrod says, Pekah their king they had
overthrown.  I placed
Hoshea over them. From him I received 10 talents of gold and 1000 talents of

The scribes of the Tiglath-Pileser III wrote the annuals (numbering 1 to 17) upon reliefs of each hall
in the palace of
Tiglath-Pileser III in Calah (also known as Nimrod), the Assyrian capital at that time.
Relief slabs carried the standard Inscription  which contained the details of the king's military
achievements. These slabs were arranged in chronological order.

II KINGS 17:1,3  - Hoshea son of Elah began to rule in Samaria over Israel....Shalmaneser king of
Assyria came to fight against
Hoshea. {Shalmaneser defeated Hoshea} and Hoshea became his
servant. So Hoshea paid tribute to

All important people had seals so letters would be honored as genuine.  Such a seal has been found
inscribed with this:  
Abdi, Servant of Hoshea.

Shalmaneser is known from his stele and oblisk (see above) to have led successful military
campaigns throughout Israel.

II KINGS 17:5-6, 24 ~ The king of Assyria [Sargon] attacked many places in Israel. Then he came to
Samaria. He fought against Samaria for three years. The
king of Assyria took Samaria during the
ninth year that Hoshea was king of Israel. The king of Assyria
captured many Israelites and took
them as prisoners to Assyria. He made them live in Halah by the Habor River at Gozan and in other
cities of the Medes....{The king of Assyria
took the Israelites out of Samaria.} Then the king of
Assyria brought people from Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath, and Sepharvaim. He put those people
in Samaria. Those people took over Samaria and lived in the cities around it.

An inscription of Sargon II in his palace ruins says, “In my first year I captured Samaria.  I took
captive 27,290 people.  
People of other lands who never paid tribute I settled in Samaria.”  

Sargon II became co-regent with Shalmaneser V in 722 BC and became the sole ruler of the
kingdom of Assyria that same year after the death of Shalmaneser V.  Shalmaneser V only reigned 5
years.  He may have had a co-regent because of illness.,

II KINGS 17:1, 21 ~ Hoshea son of Elah began to rule in Samaria over Israel (northern half of what
used to be David's kingdom). This was during the 12th year that Ahaz was king of
Judah (southern
half of all that was left of David's kingdom)
....The Lord tore Israel from the family of David [Judah in
the south], and the Israelites [Israel in the north] made Jeroboam son of Nebat their king.

Lines 7 & 8 of the Tel Dan stone states (see above) that Israel was a divided kingdom, because it
mentions the “
King of Israel” and the king of the “House of David” [Judah in the south].

II KINGS 18:9-10 ~ Shalmaneser king of Assyria went to fight against Samaria. His army
surrounded the city....(This was also the seventh year that
Hoshea son of Elah was king of Israel.) At
the end of the third year,
Shalmaneser captured Samaria....(This was also the ninth year that
Hoshea was king of Israel.)

The "Black Obelisk" pictured above was locaed at Calah, near Nineveh in today’s Iraq by
Archaeologist Layard in the
palace of Shalmaneser.  It is a block of hard black stone 7 feet high,
covered with reliefs and inscriptions depicting his exploits.  It is now in the British Museum.   On the
second line from the top is a figure with Jewish features
kneeling at the feet of the king.  Above it
is this inscription:

“The tribute of Joshea [Hoshea], son [successor] of Omri, silver, gold, bowls of gold, chalices of
gold, cups of gold, vases of gold, lead, sceptre for the king, and spear shafts I have received.”

II KINGS 23:29-30 ~ During Josiah’s time, Pharaoh Neco, the king of Egypt went to fight against the
king of Assyria at the Euphrates River. Josiah went out to meet Neco at Megiddo. Pharaoh saw
Josiah and killed him.

In the spring of 609 BC, Pharaoh Necho personally led a sizable force to help the Assyrians. Josiah
of Judah sided with the Babylonians and attempted to block his advance at Megiddo, where a fierce
battle was fought and
Josiah was killed

II KINGS 23:30, 32-35 ~ Then the common people took Josiah’s son Jehoahaz and anointed him.
They made
Jehoahaz the new king....Pharaoh Neco put Jehoahaz in prison....made Josiah’s son
Eliakim the new king. Eliakim took the place of Josiah his father. Pharaoh Neco changed Eliakim’s
name to Jehoiakim.
And Pharaoh Neco took Jehoahaz away to Egypt. Jehoahaz died in Egypt.
Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharaoh.

Pharaoh Necho continued forward, crossed the Euphrates and laid siege to Harran. Leaving a
sizable force behind,
Necho returned to Egypt. On his return march, he found that the Judeans had
Jehoahaz to succeed his father Josiah.  Necho deposed him, and replaced with
Jehoiakim. He brought Jehoahaz back to Egypt as his prisoner, where Jehoahaz ended his days.

II KINGS 24:8 ~Jehoiachin was 18 years old when he began to rule.  He ruled three months in

Inscriptions have been discovered on three pottery jar handles, apparently to remind the servants not
to take them home for private use.  They were inscribed with these words: “Eliakim officer Yaukin”.  
Yaukin is the Aramaic name for Jehoiachin. Eliakim was King Yaukin's/Jehoiachin/s officer.

II KINGS 24:9-12,15,17 ~ At that time, the officers of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to
Jerusalem and surrounded it. Then Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to the city. Jehoiachin
king of Judah went out to meet the king of Babylon....Then the king of Babylon
. This was during the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s rule....Nebuchadnezzar took
Jehoiachin to Babylon as a prisoner....The king of Babylon made Mattaniah the new king.
Mattaniah was Jehoiachin’s uncle. He changed his name to Zedekiah.

The clay tablet known as the Babylonian Chronicle records events from 605-594BC. It was first
translated in 1956 and is now in the British Museum. The cuneiform text on this clay tablet tells of
many things in the life of
Nebuchadnezzar who had conquered Assyria, then went out to conquer
Egypt and the rest of the Middle East. This is the account of his conquering Jerusalem and Judea:

"In the seventh month [of Nebuchadnezzar-599 BC] in the month Chislev [Nov/Dec] the king of
assembled his army, and after he had invaded the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine) he laid
seige to the city [capitol] of
Judah. On the second day of the month of Adara [16th of March] he
conquered the city and took the king (Jehoiachin) prisoner. He installed in his place a king
[Zedekiah] of his own choice, and after he had received rich tribute, he sent (them) forth to Babylon."

II KINGS 24:17 ~ The king of Babylon made Mattaniah the new king. Mattaniah was Jehoiachin’s
uncle. He
changed his name to Zedekiah.

A collection of letters written on pottery was unearthed in the city of Lachish in Judea. These letters
confirm events that occurred during King Zedekiah’s reign.  One of the names mentioned was
Mattaniah, Zedekiah's birth name.

II KINGS 25:22-23 ~ Nebuchadnezzar made Gedaliah governor over those people in Judah. The
army captains were....
Jaazaniah son of the Maachathite.

The name of Jaazaniah, one of the Judean military officers , was also found among the Lachish
letters.   "Further, a seal has been found bearing his name and inscribed: “Yaazenyahu (Jaazaniah),
Servant of the King.”

II KINGS 25:27a ~ Later, Evil [Awil] Merodach [Marduk] became the king of Babylon.

Evil Merodach is the same as Awil Marduk.  He reigned as king of Babylon 722-710 BC and again
703-702.  This engraving is at the Berlin Museum.

II KINGS 25:27b-30 ~ He let Jehoiachin king of Judah out of prison. This happened in the 37th year
Jehoiachin was captured. This was on the 27th day of the twelfth month from the time that Evil
began to rule. Evil Merodach was kind to Jehoiachin. He gave Jehoiachin a more
important place to sit than the other kings that were with him in
Babylon. Evil Merodach let
Jehoiachin stop wearing prison clothes. And Jehoiachin ate at the same table with Evil Merodach,
every day for the rest of his life. So
King Evil Merodach gave Jehoiachin every meal, every day, for
the rest of his life.

Tablets from the royal archives of the king of Babylon were found in the ruins of that city listing food
rations paid to captives and craftsmen . On one of the tablets,
“Yaukin, king of the land of Judah”
is mentioned along with his five sons listed as royal princes. Below are a few inscriptions found on the

10 (sila of oil) to the
king of Judah, Yaukin.
2 1/2 sila (oil) to the offspring of Judah’s king,
10 sila to Iakuukinu, the king of Judah’s son,
2 1/2 sila for the five sons of the Judean king
Interior cave wall where STONES
were cut out.
"Solomon's Quarry" was a cave
extending under the city of
Excavations of  MEGIDDO
EZION GEBER on the Red Sea
Inscription on wall of temple of
Amun at Karnak, Egypt, listing
Israelite & other cities
Shoshenqw/SHISHAK I conquered
Bronze-age gate at TEL DAN, a very
ancient city.
30-foot high bronze-age wall at
Altar at TEMPLE of Ashtoreth
goddess, wife of god Baal,
at Megiddo
Ruins of King Ahab's
Moabite Stone
The Kurk Monolith/Stele of
Black Obelisk of
Shalmaneser III,
referring to BEN
Makeup jars & bowls for skin & eyes
JEHU bowing to Shalmaneser III,
King of Assyria,
engraved on Black Obelisk
Tiglath-PILeser III stela from the
walls of his palace
(British Museum, London)
Assyria, at war
SHALMANESER V, King of Assyria
SARGON II, King of Assyria
(possibly with Salmaneser V)
Winged human-headed bulls from
city gates of Khorsabad, capital of
(British Museum)
Syrian/Aramian King HAZAEL
Babylonian Chronicle
Lachish Letters on Pottery
King of Babylon
ration tablet found in Babylon
Water shaft used by David's men to
conquer JEBUS(Jerusalem)
Ruins of house in original JEBUS
Well just inside wall of BETHLEHEM
One of the Lachish letters.
Wall of prisoners, SHISHAK's
temple of Amon at Karnak
Pharaoh SHISHAK victory relief
found at Megiddo
Wall panels from
Nimrod on display at the British
Museum, London
Grave marker of King UZZIAH,
the leper
JOTHAM seal Signet ring
Bottom: Seal of AHAZ's attendant
Top:  Seal of AHAZ himself.
impression is somewhat like his
father Ahaz's.
HEZEKIAH'S water tunnel into
Inscription in HEZEKIAH'S Tunnel
HEZEKIAH'S Outer Wall built to
protect Jerusalem from
Sennacherib's attack.
L-"Abyaw steward of UZZIAH"
R-"Shebnayahu official to UZZIAH"
SENNACHERIB'S Lachish victory
SENNACHARIB, king of Assyria
Description of a high priest