GENESIS 2:8 ~ Then the Lord God planted a garden in the East, in a place named Eden. The
Lord God put the man he made in that garden.

The Weld Prism is very close to the Biblical account of the first eras of man.  It lists Eridu [Eden]
twelve miles south of Ur, as the home of the first two kings in world history.  

GENESIS 2:10&14 ~ A river flowed from Eden and watered the garden. That river then separated
and became four smaller rivers…. The name of the third river was
Tigris. This river flowed east of
Assyria. The fourth river was the

Eridu is where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet in today’s Iraq.   Excavations around Eridu
reveal it was densely populated with evidences (engravings, etc.) of the earliest writings and
drawings of mankind.

GENESIS 4:22 ~ Tubal-Cain was the father of people who work with bronze and iron

Tubal-Cain was the seventh generation after Adam.  Until recently, the use of iron was thought to
have been unknown prior to the 12th century BC, calling BC 1200 onward the Iron Age.  

Dr. H. E. Frankfort of the Oriental Institute discovered in the ruins of Asmar, some 100 miles
northeast of Babylon, an
iron blade made around 2700 BC.  Primitive inscriptions have revealed
that Babylonia always used various metals.  
Copper instruments have been found in the ruins of
pre-flood cities.  The Weld Prism, giving the ten kings who reigned before the flood says
the 3rd, 5th, and 6th reigned at a place called Badgurgurru meaning
“city of workers in bronze.”

GENESIS 7:1,13; 8:3-4 ~ Then the Lord said to Noah, “I have seen that you are a good man, even
among the evil people of this time. So gather your family and all of you go into the boat …. The rain
fell on the earth for 40 days and 40 nights. …. Rain stopped falling from the sky. And water
stopped flowing from under the earth. The
water that covered the earth began to go down and
down. After 150 days, the water was low enough that the boat touched land again. The boat
stopped on one of the mountains of Ararat.

The Weld Prism and Nippur Tablets list kings during the earliest eras of mankind.  Then they
say, “Then the Flood overthrew the land.”

Archaeologist George Smith of the British Museum found numerous tablets from the Library of
Assur-Banipal at Nineveh dating back to the first dynasty of Ur about mid-way between the
flood and Abraham.  Many of these ancient tablets repeatedly used the expressions such as “the
“the age before the flood”, “the inscriptions of the time before the flood.”  

GENESIS 11:4, 8-9      Then the people said, “We should build a city for ourselves. And we should
build a
tower that will reach to the sky. We will be famous. {And this will keep us together.} We will
not be scattered all over the earth.”… So the Lord caused the people to spread all over the earth.
So the people did not finish building the city. That is the place where the Lord
confused the
language of the whole world
. So that place is called Babel.  So the Lord caused the people to
spread out from that place to all the other places on earth.

Archaeologist George Smith of the British Museum found an ancient tablet in ruins north of the
Marduk Temple in central Babylon which read:  
“The building of this illustrious tower offended the
gods.  In a night they threw down what they had built.  They scattered them abroad and made
strange their speech.  Their progress they impeded.  They wept hot tears for Babylon.”

GENESIS 14:1, 14-15 ~   Amraphel was the king of Shinar [Mesopotamia]….Lot, the son of  
Abraham's brother, was living in Sodom, and the enemy captured him….Abram learned that Lot
was captured. So Abram called all of his family together. There were 318 trained soldiers. Abram
led the men and chased the enemy all the way to the town of Dan. That night, he and his men
made a surprise attack against the enemy. They defeated the enemy and chased them.

King Amraphel is the Hebrew pronunciation of Hammurabi, the most famous of early Babylonian
kings.  His celebrated Code of over 300 laws or “Code of Hammurabi” is on display at the Louvre in
Paris.  Shinar refers to Mesopotamia.

GENESIS 14:8-9 ~ The king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king
Bela (Zoar) joined together and went to fight against their enemies. {They went to fight} in the
Valley of Siddim. They fought against Kedorlaomer the king of Elam, Tidal the king of Goiim,
Amraphel the king of Shinar, and Arioch the king of Ellasar. So there were four kings fighting
against five.

The Ebla (now Tel Mardikh) excavations carried out in northern Syria, 60 km. south of Aleppo,
under the archaeological control of the University of Rome La Sapienza, and directed by Paolo
Matthiae, lead to important discoveries, bringing to light the Royal Archive.   This big archive
17.000 tablets written in cuneiform characters

Elba Tablet #1860 lists these Genesis kings: si-da-mu
(Sodoma), e-ma-ra (Gomorra), ad-ma
Adma), si-ba-i-um (Zeboim), be-la (Tsoar o  [Zoar] )

GENESIS 13:10; :24-25 ~ Lot looked and saw the Jordan Valley. Lot saw that there was much
water there. (This was before the Lord destroyed
Sodom and Gomorrah. At that time the Jordan
Valley all the way to
Zoar was like the Lord’s Garden.At the same time, the Lord began to destroy
Sodom and Gomorrah [near Dead Sea]. The Lord caused fire and burning sulfur to fall out of
the sky from the Lord. So the Lord
destroyed those cities. The Lord destroyed the whole valley—

Archaeologists W. F. Albright and M. G. Kyle discovered about 500 feet above the Dead Sea the
remains of a great
fortified enclosure and great quantities of potsherds, flint and other remains
of a period dating between
2500 BC and 2000 BC.  

There are vast are vast beds of flammable petroleum deposits on both sides of the Dead Sea.  
Under Mt. Usdom at that location is a stratum of
salt 150 feet thick mixed with sulfur.  An
explosion of the petroleum and sulfur would blow up into the sky and then fall back down like rain.  
The salt and free sulphur of this area, now a burned-out region of oil and asphalt, were apparently
mingled by an earthquake, causing a violent explosion. Carried up into the air red-hot, the
exploding salt and sulphur literally caused a rain of fire and brimstone over the whole plain

Sodom: Bab edh-Dhra (alt. Bub edh-Dhra), at Wadi Kerak. Remains of a stone fortress and city (including a large
cemetery south of the city, 5/8 of a mile long and about half as wide. An estimated 20,000 shaft tombs would hold
over half a million dead).
Gomorrah: Numeira. Located at the Wadi south of Bab edh-Dhra, Wadi Numeira.  Remains of another fortified city
were found on a level top of a plain just south of the spring of Wadi Numeira.
Admah: Fiefa, located on the north side of Wadi Feifa. Remains of a walled city and a tower. (Noted similarities of
pottery found here with Bab edh-Dhra). Discovered a burial ground which perhaps rivals Bab edh-Dhra in size and
Zeboiim: Khanazir. Located on the northern side of the Wadi Khanazir.  It holds common characteristics with the
other four sites, excluding only the large graveyard.
Zoar: es-Safi. Located overlooking Wadi Hesa, between Numeira and Fiefa, also with a large graveyard similar to
that of Bab edh-Dhra and Feifa. (Noted similarities of pottery found here with Bab edh-Dhra)

A burn (ash) layer was found in regards to the destruction of all five cities, showing final
destruction from the top down, especially including the associated massive graveyard at Bab
edh-Dhra.  The severity of the burning of the cities is shown from the excavation at
, where a dug pit cut through seven feet of dark ash. Additionally, all the cities
(except Zoar) were destroyed at the same time, also consistent with a regional destruction. All of
the cities date to the same era and were built on a piece of ground overlooking a Wadi (ravine)
entering the southern Dead Sea plain.

GENESIS 12:6 ~ Abram traveled through the land of Canaan as far as the town of Shechem and
then went to the big tree at Moreh. The Canaanite people lived in that place at this time.
GENESIS 13:3 ~ Abram continued traveling around. He left the Negev and went back to
He went to the place between the city of Bethel and the city of
GENESIS 14:18 ~ Melchizedek, the king of [Jeru]Salem, also went to meet Abram.
GENESIS 20:1 ~ Abraham left that place and traveled to the Negev.... settled in the city of
GENESIS 37:17 ~ So Joseph followed his brothers and found them in Dothan.

Archaeologists Albright and Garstang, searching through the ruins of these cities (Shechem,
Bethel, Ai, Jerusalem, Gerar, Dothan
) have found shards and other evidences that these cities
actually existed around 2000 BC.  

GENESIS 39:1-2  ~ The traders who bought Joseph took him down to Egypt. They sold him to the
captain of Pharaoh’s guard, Potiphar. But the Lord helped Joseph. Joseph became a successful
man. Joseph lived in the house of his master, Potiphar the Egyptian.

The kings during the enslavement and rise to power of Joseph and eventual arrival of his family
and their enslavement would be
Senusret II, (1894-1878 BC) and Senusret III (1878-1841 BC),
Joseph’s career as an Egyptian governmental official would thus begin under Senusret II and would
continue into the reign of Senusret III.  Amenemhet III became Pharaoh when Joseph was in his
To figure years of events and reigns, go here.

Joseph arrived at Egypt at age 17 (Genesis 37:2), was 30 at the beginning of the famine (Genesis
Genesis 41:46) lived 71 years after his family came to Egypt and died at age 110 (Genesis 50:26).
This means that he
died  about 1807 BC, during the reign of Amenemhet III (1841-1797).

GENESIS 41:45  ~ Pharaoh gave Joseph another name, Zaphenath Paneah.  Pharaoh also gave
Joseph a wife named Asenath. She was the daughter of Potiphera, a priest in the
city of ON.  So
Joseph became the governor over the whole country of Egypt.

Archaeologist Sir Flanders Petrie in the 1800s discovered ruins of a palace on the site of ON
dated to the time of Joseph..  Heliopolis, the City of the Sun, at one time
possessed more monuments than Thebes.  Today, a single obelisk in an enclosure just by the
suburb of Matariya (northwest of the Cairo International Airport) marks the ruins of Heliopolis north
of the modern suburb known also known as Heliopolis.

GENESIS: 41:54, 56 ~ And the seven years of hunger began, just like Joseph had said.  No food
grew anywhere in any of the countries in that area.  There was
famine everywhere, so Joseph
gave the people grain from the warehouses.
Joseph sold the stored grain to the people of Egypt.
The famine was bad in Egypt.     

Archaeologist and historian Brugsch found at the tomb of Baba of El-Kab an inscription made at
the time of Joseph reading:  
“When a famine arose lasting many years, I distributed corn to the
city each year of the famine.”  
Brugsch explained, “Since famines in Egypt are of the greatest
rarity….and since
Baba lived about the same time as Joseph, there remains but one fair
inference:  that the “many years of famine” are the seven years of famine under Joseph.”


Weld Prism with references
to Eden, Tigris & Eurphrates
Rivers, bronze & iron
Nippur Tablet
Model of Temple of Marduk
near great tower in Babylon
based on ruins
Site of Elba Tablets
Tel edh-Dhra (Sodom)
Black stones (Brimstone) at
Tel edh-Dhra (Sodom)
Ruins of BETHEL (top) & DOTHAN (bottom)
Pharaohs SENUSRET II (L)  &  III (R)
All that is left of ON
(Heliopolis) today.
Tombs at El-Kab
Hammurabi on Throne

EXODUS 1:8,12-13 & 22 - Then a new king began to rule Egypt. This king did not know Joseph....
TheEgyptian people became more and more afraid of the people of Israel.  So the Egyptians
forced the people of Israel
[as slaves] to work even harder…. Pharaoh gave this command to his
own people: “…every time a {Hebrew}
boy baby is born, you must throw him into the Nile River.”
EXODUS 2:3, 5, 11 ~ The mother was afraid that the baby would be found and killed because he
was a boy. After three months, she made a basket and covered it with tar so that it would float….
Just then, Pharaoh’s daughter went to the river to bathe. She saw the basket in the tall grass. Her
servants were walking beside the river. So she told one of them to go get the basket…. The
daughter accepted the baby as her own son
. She named him Moses because she had pulled
him from the water.

When was Moses born?  1Kings 6:1 states that Solomon began building the Temple in the
fourth year of his reign, 480 years after the Exodus.
965 BC - The fourth year of Solomon's reign
+480 years between Exodus and Solomon’s temple
1445 BC – The Israelite Exodus from Egypt.  Moses was age 80 (Exodus 7:7)  
+40 years that Moses was away from Egypt
1485 BC – The year Moses was age 40 and left Egypt
(Near the time of Moses' princess/queen mother died)
Thut-mosis III was ruling, possibly a rival to Moses about the same age)
+40 years  back to when Moses was born
1525 BC -  When Moses was born (Thut-mosis I began ruling this year)

From this website comes the list of Pharaohs whose reigns overlapped Moses:   Their arragement of the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt is based upon the History which
the Egyptian priest Manetho prepared under Ptolemy II in the third century B.C.

Thut-mosis I: 1525-1508 BC (
Moses' adoptive grandfather)
Thut-mosis II: 1508-1504 (son of Thut-mosis I & step-brother of Hatshepsut) (
Moses' step-father)
Hatshepsut/Thermuthis: 1504-1483 (dtr of Thut-mosis I,
Moses' adoptive mother)
Thut-mosis III: 1504-1450 (But literally 1483 to 1450)
Amenhotep II: 1450-1423 BC

In Egyptian mos means “child,” it being the same element as found in Thut-mosis, which means
“child of Thoth.”  Apparently, Moses was named after the father of the princess who found him.  

Who was Moses’ step-mother, the daughter of Pharaoh?  Jewish historian Josephus states that
Pharaoh’s daughter was Ther-muthis.  Perhaps hers was a feminine form of her father’s name,

(ACTS 7:22 ~ The Egyptians taught Moses about all the things they knew. He was powerful in the
things he said and did.)

Pharaoh Thut-mosis I and his wife Queen Ahmose had one child, a daughter, Hatshepsut, who
married her stepbrother Thut-mosis II.  Since we know that the Pharoah at the time of Moses’ birth
was Thut-mosis, then Thermuthis and Hatshepsut are the same person.  According to Egyptian
Hatshepsut married her stepbrother Thut-mosis II.   When their father died, she
coreigned with her husband.

EXODUS 2:11, 15 ~   Moses grew and became a man. He saw that his own people, the Hebrews,
were forced to work very hard. One day Moses saw an Egyptian man beating a Hebrew man.
Moses looked around and saw that no one was watching. Then Moses killed the Egyptian and
buried him in the sand….Pharaoh heard about what Moses did, so he decided to kill Moses. But
Moses ran away from Pharaoh. Moses went to the land of

(ACTS 7:23-24 ~ When
Moses was about 40 years old, he thought it would be good to visit his
brothers, the Israelites.  Moses saw an Egyptian man doing wrong to an Israelite man. So he
defended the Israelite. Moses punished the Egyptian for hurting the Israelite; Moses hit him so
hard that he died.)

This occurred about 1485 BC.  Moses' adoptive mother died 1483 BC, so he would not have
had a strong protector.

EXODUS 2:23; 5:1   ~ A long time passed and that king of Egypt died. But the people of Israel
were still forced to work very hard. They cried for help, and God heard them….After
Moses and
talked to the people, they went to Pharaoh. They said, “The Lord* God of Israel says, ‘Let
my people go
into the desert so they can have a feast to honor me.’”

(Acts 7:30, 36  ~   
After 40 years Moses was in the desert near Mount Sinai. An angel appeared
to him in the flame of a burning bush…. So Moses led the people out. He did powerful things and
miracles.* Moses did these things in Egypt, at the Red Sea, and then in the desert for 40 years.)

This occurred approximately 1445.  Thut-mosis III was the Pharaoh when Moses returned and who
refused to let the Israelites go.   

        Plagues In Egypt to Convince them to Let Israelite Slaves Go

The Ipuwer Papyri were found in Egypt and today is in the Leiden Museum in Holland.  It
describes violent upheavals in Egypt, starvation, drought, escape of slaves (with the wealth of the
Egyptians), and death throughout the land. The papyrus was written by an Egyptian named Ipuwer
and appears to be an
eyewitness account of the effects of the Exodus plagues. The
account parallels the Book of Exodus.  (Note specific papyri listed under the plagues.)

EXODUS 7:20 ~ So Moses and Aaron did what the Lord commanded. Aaron raised the walking stick
and hit the water in the
Nile River. He did this in front of Pharaoh and his officials. So all the water
in the river changed into
blood.  The fish in the river died, and the river began to stink.

Hapi (Sobi) was Egyptian god of the Nile.  The Nile water was the transformed life blood of
Osiris.  Hatmeyt was the
fish goddess.
Papyrus 2:10 - "The river is blood."

EXODUS 8:6 ~ So Aaron raised his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs began coming
out of the water and covered the land of Egypt.

Hekt was the Egyptians’ frog-headed goddess who played a part in their creation.  She was
goddess of reproduction.

EXODUS 8:24 ~ So the Lord did just what he said. Many, many flies came into Egypt. The flies
were in Pharaoh’s house, and they were in all his officials’ houses. The flies were all over Egypt.
The flies were ruining the country.

Khephera is Egypt’s dung-beetle god, considered a manifestation of Atum or Ra and god of
resurrection [flies multiply in filth].
Papyrus 4:14, 6:1 - Trees are destroyed. No fruit nor herbs are found.

EXODUS 9:6 ~ All the cattle in Egypt died. But none of the animals that belonged to the people of
Israel died.

Hathor was the cow-headed love goddess of Egypt.  Other gods of Egypt associated with cattle
Ptah (Apis) and Amon.  Great cemeteries of embalmed cattle have been excavated.  The
symbol of the
bull was the symbol of Pharaoh himself.  

EXODUS 9:9 ~ This will become dust that will go throughout the land of Egypt. Whenever the dust
touches a person or an animal in Egypt,
boils (sores) will break out on the skin.

Im-Hotep was the Egyptian god of healing.  The goddess Sekhmet was also known for her
healing powers.

EXODUS 9:24-26 ~ The hail was falling. And there was lightning flashing all through it. It was
the worst hailstorm that had ever hit Egypt since it had been a nation. The hail
destroyed people,
animals, and plants.
The hail also broke all the trees in the fields. The only place that did not get
hail was the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel lived.

Nut was the sky goddess of Egypt and mother of the sun-god.
Papyrus 2:10 - Forsooth, gates, columns and walls are consumed by fire.

EXODUS 10:15 ~ The locusts ate every plant on the ground and all of the fruit in the trees that the
hail had not destroyed. There weren’t any leaves left on any of the trees or plants anywhere in

Senehem was the Egyptian locust-headed god.

EXODUS 10:22-23 ~ So Moses raised his arm into the air and a cloud of darkness covered Egypt.
darkness stayed in Egypt for three days.  None of the people could see each other. And no
one got up to go any place for three days. But there was light in all the places where the people of
Israel lived.

Amon-Ra ~ god of the sun ~ was the principle deity of all the gods of Egypt.  Pharaoh called
himself "son of the sun." With three days of darkness, the principle deity was scorned.
Papyrus 9:11 - The land is not light....

EXODUS 11:4 & 12:31~ Moses said {to the people}, “The Lord says, ‘At midnight tonight, I will go
through Egypt, and every
firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, the
ruler of Egypt, to the
firstborn son of the slave  girl grinding grain…So that night, Pharaoh called
for Moses and Aaron. Pharaoh said to them, “Get up and leave my people. You and your people
can do as you say. Go and worship the Lord!

Papyrus 4:3, 5:6, 6:12 - Forsooth, the children of princes are dashed against the walls.
Forsooth, the children of princes are cast out in the streets.

Pharoah Thut-mosis III had a first-born son named Amenemhat who was named “the king's
eldest son" and overseer of the cattle of Amun in the 24th year of Thut-mosis' reign.  However,
between this 24th year and the 35th year of his reign, Pharaoh’s
eldest son, Amenemhat, died.  
his half-brother, Amenhotep II was named heir-apparent of the throne.  

1504 BC Thut-mosis II died & son Thut-mosis III became Pharaoh, but too young to rule (age 1)
1483 BC Queen Mother, Hatshepsut, ruled for her son for about 21 years until she died
1480 BC Returned from a military campaign he launched 2 months after his mother died
  and actually began to rule.  He was a great warrior & expansionist king.
1445 BC Moses led Israelites out of Egypt &
  Pharaoh Thut-mosis III's oldest son died in 35th year of his actual rule,
the year 1445 BC
THUT-MOSIS I (1525-1508 BC)
THUT-MOSIS II (1508-1504) &
The great warrior & expansionist
Ipuwer Papyrus
Hapi & Sobi, god of the Nile
dung-beetle god
the bull god
god of healing
goddess of healing
goddess of
god of the

NUMBERS 21:29 ~ It is bad for you, Moab.  You lost [god] Chemosh’s people.  His sons ran
away.  His daughters were taken prisoners by Sihon, king of the Amorites.

NUMBERS 21:30 ~ But we defeated those Amorites.  We destroyed their towns from Heshbon to
Dibon, from Nashim to Nophah, near Medeba.

The Moabite Stone verifies that the god of the Moabites was Chemosh and that there was a city in
Moab named

"I Mesha, son of [god] Chemosh, Mesha’s king, the Dibonite. My father governed Moab for 30
years, then I reigned after my father. I made a high place for [god]
Chemosh in Qarhoh,"

This monument was found by a German missionary in 1898, lying on the ground near the Arnon
River in the ancient city of Dibon. Recorded on the stone are victories over the Israelites by
Mesha, king of Moab.

Human sacrifice was part of the rites of
Chemosh.  This practice was not unique to the Moabites,
as such rites were commonplace in the various Canaanite religious cults, including those of the
Baals and of Moloch.

NUMBERS 22:4-5; 23:5 ~ The {king of} Moab said to the leaders of Midian, “This large group of
people will destroy everything around us, the way a cow eats all the grass in a field.” Balak son of
Zippor was the king of Moab at this time. He sent some men to call
Balaam son of Beor. Balaam
was at
Pethor, near the Euphrates River. This was where Balaam’s people lived…. Then the Lord
told Balaam what he should say.

Pethor, a Mesopotamian city, is identified with Pitru of Assyrian texts, located 12 miles south of
Carchemish.  Balaam was a diviner-prophet.  Tell Aushariye is located close to the confluence of
the Sajour and Euphrates rivers.  Aushariye hides the ruins of ancient Pitru.  A stela with an
Assyrian inscription, authored by Shalmaneser III supports this.

An ancient text found at
Deir Alla, Jordan tells about the activities of a prophet named Balaam.  
The remarkable text found at Deir Alla consists of
119 fragments of plaster inscribed with black
and red ink. It was among the rubble of a building destroyed in an earthquake. It seems to have
been one long column with at least 50 lines, displayed on a plastered wall.  Written in Aramaic, the
text begins with the title
“Warnings from the Book of Balaam the son of Beor."

Stela authored by
Shalmaneser III
Plaster wall inscriptions of BALAAM
Moabite Stone