PROOFS THE BIBLE IS TRUE & UNCHANGED
ARCHAEOLOGY

OLD TESTAMENT

PROPHECY
                ISAIAH

ISAIAH 7:1 ~ Rezin was the king of Aram [Syria], Pekah... was the king of Israel. During the time Ahaz
was king of Judah,
Rezin and Pekah went up to Jerusalem to fight against it. But they were not able to
defeat the city.

Ahaz was king of Judah 741-726 BC.  Pekah was king of Israel 748-730 BC.  About 738 BC, Tiglath-
Pilesar, King of Assyria, declared on one of his palace reliefs, now in possession of the British Museum in
London:

"I received the tribute of…Rezin, the Damascene, Menahem, the Samarian, Hiram, the Tyrian."  {COS 2,
285, 2.117A – Calah Annals}

Later he wrote this in his Calah Annals:

"Rezin the Damascene...With the blood of his warriors I dyed a reddish hue the river....That one (Rezin)
in order to save his life, fled alone; and he entered the gate of his city like a mongoose. I impaled alive his
chief ministers....I confined him like a bird in a cage. His gardens...orchards without number I cut down; I
did not leave a single one.  [16] districts of Bit-Humri (Israel) I leveled to the ground."
(COS 2, 286, 2.117A)


ISAIAH 15:1; 16:7, 11 ~ This is a sad message about Moab....One night, armies took the wealth from Kir,
Moab. That night, the city was destroyed....

The city of Kir was the capital city of Moab.  It was also called Kir-Hereseth and Hereseth.  It was on top of
an isolated hill with a clear view of all directions.  In 1140, the crusaders built a fortress on the ruins of
Kir,
and it is still there, as pictured.  It is now part of the modern city of
Kerak.


ISAIAH 15:2a ~ The king’s family and the people of Dibon are going to the places of worship to cry.

Dibon was the capital city of Moab.  The modern city of Dhiban is next to the ruins of ancient Dibon.  
Dibon might be the town “Tpn” or “Tbn” found in Egyptian writings during the reigns of Thutmoses III,
Amenhotep III, and Rameses II.  It is mentioned in the Mesha Stone, also called the Moabite Stone.  

1) I Mesha, son of Chemosh, Mesha’s king, the
2) Dibonite. My father governed Moab for 30 years, then I reigned
3) after my father. I made a high place for Chemosh in Qarhoh,
4) for he protected me from all the kings and caused me to triumph over all my enemies.

20) I took with me two hundred men from Moab, all chief warriors, and sent them to Jahaz; and I
21) added it to
Dibon. I constructed Qarhoh with the wall of the forest and the wall
22) of the acropolis; along with its gates and towers.
23) I built the
house of the king; and its water reservoirs for inside
24) the city; for there was no water inside the town of Qarhoh, so I said to the residents: "Make for yourself
25) a cistern in every house"; I cut trees for use in Qarhoh with the prisoners
28) And the men of
Dibon were loyal to my rule. And I reigned
29) over hundreds of villages which I added to my country.


ISAIAH 15:2b ~ The people of Moab are crying for Nebo and Medeba.

Medeba was about 6 miles southeast of Mount Nebo where Moses died and was buried.  Its border was
the Arnon River.  Sometimes Israel claimed it and sometimes Moab claimed it.

Both Nebo and Medeba are mentioned in the Mesha Stone, also called the Moabite stone, on lines 7,
14 and 30:

7) but I triumphed over his house. And Israel has passed away forever. Omri occupied Medeba’s land.
14) And Chemosh said to me: "Go! Bring
Nebo against Israel.”
15) So I went by night and fought from sunrise until noon.
16) taking it and slaying all 7,000 men, boys, women, girls,
17) and maidservants, because I dedicated them to Ashtar-Chemosh.
29) over hundreds of villages which I added to my country. I built
30)
the temple of Medeba and the temple of Diblaten and the temple of Baal-meon


ISAIAH 15:5 ~ My heart cries with sorrow for Moab.  People are running for safety. They run far away to
Zoar....The people are crying very loudly as they walk on the road to
Horonaim.  

Horonaim is also known as Horonan located in Moab (today's Jordan).

Kings of Israel and Judah fought against king Mesha of Moab around 850 B.C.  King Mesha's account of
the wars is in the Mesha Stele, also called the
Moabite Stone.   (lines 31 and 32).  

31) [. . .] sheep of the land. While the house of David inhabited Horonaim.
32) [. . .] and Chemosh said to me: "Go down! Attack Horonaim." So I advanced against it, and
33) Chemosh reestablished it in my days.


ISAIAH 16:14 ~ Moab many times....And now the Lord says, “In three years (the way a hired helper
counts time) all those people [of
Moab] and the things they are proud of will be gone. There will be a few
people left, but there will not be many.”

(ISAIAH 6:1; 7:1 ~ In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw my Master [Lord]. He was sitting on a very high
and wonderful throne.His long robe filled the temple....
Rezin was the king of Aram [Syria], Pekah... was
the king of Israel. During the time Ahaz was king of Judah.)

Uzziah reigned as king 787-735 BC.  Isaiah made this prophecy in 735 BC, and it was fulfilled three years
later in In
732 BC,  It was fulfilled 13 years after Tiglath-Pilesar became king of Assyria (he reigned 745-
727 BC).
Tiglath-Pilesar, on a tablet now in possession of the Oriental Museum in Chicago and pictured
here, said this about Moab, also known as Aram:

"In the service of my Lord Ashur, my chariots and warriors I assembled; I set out on my march. In front of
my strong men I went to the country of the Aramaeans, the enemies of my Lord Ashur. From before
Tsukha, as far as the city of Qarqamis belonging to the country of Khatte, I smote with one blow. Their
fighting men I slew; their movables, their wealth, and their valuables in countless numbers I carried off.
The men of their armies who fled from before the face of the valiant servants of my Lord Ashur, crossed
over the Euphrates; in boats covered with bitumen skins I crossed the Euphrates after them; I took six of
their cities which were below the country of Bisri; I burnt them with fire, and I destroyed and overthrew;
and I brought their movables, their wealth, and their valuables to my city of Ashur."


ISAIAH 18:1~ Look at the land along the rivers of Cush [Ethiopia].   {The land is filled with insects; you
can hear} their buzzing wings. That land sends people across the sea in reed boats.  Fast messengers,
go to the
people that are tall and strong! (People in all places are afraid of these tall and strong people.
They are a powerful nation. Their nation defeats other nations. They are in a country
divided by rivers.)

To Egyptians, Lower Nubia and later of the Nubian kingdom at Napata, was also known as "kingdom
of Kush".

Explorer James Bruce, who visited Ethiopia around 1770, wrote of "a tradition among the Abyssinians,
which they say they have had since time immemorial", that in the days after the Flood of Noah's
experience,
Cush (Noah's son), the son of Ham (Noah's grandson), traveled with his family up the Nile
until they reached the Atbara plain. There they built their settlement, Axum.  Then they returned to the
lowland where they built Meroe.  The Cushite kingdom spread from there around north central Africa.


ISAIAH 20:1 ~ Sargon was the king of Assyria.  Sargon sent Tarton to Ashdod to fight against that city.
Tarton went there and captured the city.  

Sargon II began to rule Assyria in 722 BC.  After several military campaigns, in 713 BC he stayed at
home; while his troops went out on another campaign.  In 711 BC, an uprising in the Philistine city of
Ashdod, supported by Judah, Moab, Edom and Egypt, was suppressed, and Ashdod became an
Assyrian province.

In 717 BC, Sargon II ordered a new palace and surrounding city be built at Dur Sharrikin, about twenty
miles from Nineveh.  It was finished in 706 BC.  The following year he was killed in battle.  His soi,
Sennacherib, abandoned the palace and moved to Nineveh.  

Several expeditions took place in the 1800s, but every time artifacts were shipped, they were destroyed
from various mishaps.  A few surviving artifacts were taken to the Louvre in Paris.  Among them was an
inscription from a pavement at
Sargon's palace which read:

"[Sargon II] who conquered Samaria and the entire land of Bit-Humria (Israel); who plundered Ashdod...
" (COS 2.118G, p.298)


ISAIAH 20:2-4 ~ At that time, the Lord  spoke through Isaiah son of Amoz. The Lord said, “Go, take the
cloth of sadness
off your waist. Take your shoes off your feet.” Isaiah obeyed the Lord....Then the Lord
said, “Isaiah has walked around without clothes and without shoes
for three years. This is a sign for
Egypt and  Ethiopia. The king of
Assyria will defeat Egypt and Ethiopia. Assyria will take prisoners and
lead them away from their countries. The old people and young people will be led without clothes and
without shoes. They will be completely naked. The people from Egypt will be shamed.

Pharaoh Taharqa was the first in a dynasty of Kushite (Ethiopian) pharaohs.  When Assyria attacked,
he tried to rebuff them, but finally fled to the south.  

In 671 BC
Assyrian king Esarhaddon, grandson of Sargon, went to war against Pharaoh Taharqa of
Egypt. His troops took Memphis, and Taharqa fled to Upper Egypt.
Esarhaddon now called himself
"king of Egypt, Patros and Kush"
, and returned with rich booty from the cities of the delta.  He erected
a victory stele at this time, showing the son of Pharaoh Taharqa ~ Prince Ushankhuru ~ in bondage.

"His [Pharaoh Taharqa's] queen, his harem, [Prince] Ushankhuru his heir, and the rest of his sons and
daughters, his property and his goods, his horses, his cattle, his sheep in countless numbers, I carried off
to
Assyria. The root of Kush [Ethiopia] I tore up out of Egypt."


ISAIAH 39:1 ~ At that time, Merodach Baladan son of Baladan was king of Babylon.  Merodach sent
letters and a gift to Hezekiah. Merodach did this because he heard that Hezekiah had been sick. These
things made Hezekiah very happy
.

Merodach/Marduk Baladan was a Chaldean/Babylonian prince and very ambitious.  He usurped the
Babylonian throne in 721 BC and reigned until 710 BC. He was strong enough to maintain Babylonian
independence from Assyrian control for over a decade.  King Sargon II of Assyria was able to repress his
allies,
Judah [Hezekiah], Aram (Syria) and Elam, and that kept Babylon on its own.  But eventually
Sargon drove
Merodach from Babylon in 710 BC.  After Sargon's death in 705 BC, Merodach returned
and reigned nearly another year in 703 BC.  Nine months later he was defeated by the Assyrians, fled,
and died a couple years later.

An Engraving of him is on display at the Royal Museum in Berlin.  


ISAIAH 39:2, 5-7 ~ So Hezekiah showed the men all the valuable things in his storehouses....Hezekiah
showed them [ambassadors from
Babylon] the swords and shields used for war.... Hezekiah showed
them everything.

Then Isaiah said this to
Hezekiah: “Listen to the words from the Lord All-Powerful.’The time is coming
when all the things in your house and all the things your ancestors have saved until today
will be carried
away to Babylon
. Nothing will be left!’ The Lord All-Powerful said this. The Babylonians will
take
your own sons [descendants]. And your sons will become officers* in the palace of the king of
Babylon.”

(Daniel 1:1-3 ~ Nebuchadnezzar was the king of
Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar came to Jerusalem.
Nebuchadnezzar surrounded Jerusalem with his army. This happened during the third year that
Jehoiakim was king of Judah.The Lord allowed Nebuchadnezzar to defeat Jehoiakim king of Judah.
Nebuchadnezzar took all of the dishes and other things from God’s temple. Nebuchadnezzar carried
those things to
Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar put those things in the temple of his idol gods.)

Hezekiah's dynasty through is descendants were as follows:  Hezekiah > Manasseh > Amon > Josiah >
Jehoahaz > Jehoiachim ~ Jehoiachin.  Isaiah's prediction came true one hundred years after Hezekiah's
death.  

The
Babylonian Chronicles, show that Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem the first time during the
reign of
Jehoaichin on 2 Adar (16 March) 597 BC.  These chronicle tables are on display at the British
Museum in London.

Nebuchadnezzar had this inscribed on what today is called the Jerusalem Chronicle. Side 1:
21. In the second year [603/602] in the month of Ajaru  the king of Akkad [Babylon] gathered together a
powerful army and marched to the
land of Hatti (Canaan/Palestine).
22. ...]  he threw down, great siege-towers he [...
23. ...] from the month of Ajaru until the mon[th of ...] he
marched about unopposed in the land of Hatti.

Side 2 he said this about his final siege:
11'. In the seventh year [598/597], the month of Kislîmu, the king of Akkad mustered his troops, marched to the Hatti-land,
12'. and
besieged the city of Judah and on the second day of the month of Addaru he seized the city and captured the king [Jehoiachin]
13'. He appointed there a king of his own choice [Zedekiah], received its heavy tribute and sent to Babylon.


ISAIAH 44:28; 45:4  ~ The Lord says to Cyrus, “You are my shepherd. You will do the things I want.
You will say to Jerusalem,‘You will be built again!’ You will tell the temple, ‘Your foundations will be built
again!’”  I do these things for my servant, Jacob. I do these things for my chosen people, Israel.
{Cyrus,}
I am calling you by name. You don’t know me, but I am calling you by name.

Isaiah made this prophecy around 700 BC.  Cyrus A king of Persia. He ruled about 550–530 B.C.  King
Cyrus lived about 150 years after this prediction.  It was King Cyrus who authorized rebuilding
Jerusalem.  For details on this and quotes from inscriptions, look in the History section for Cyrus.


ISAIAH 46:1-2 ~ Bel and Nebo, will bow down before me. {Those false gods are only statues.} Men put
those
statues on the backs of animals—those statues are only heavy burdens that must be carried. The
false gods do nothing but make people tired. Those false gods will all bow down—they will all fall. Those
false gods can’t escape—they will all be carried away like prisoners.

Inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar read thusly:
Column 1:
[1.30] (namely) of Merodach great Lord, the god my maker.
[1.31] His skilful works
[1.32] highly have I glorified;
[1.33] and of
Nebo his eldest son
[1.34] exalter of My Royalty
[1.35] the processions (in honor of) his exalted deity
[1.36] I firmly established.
[1.37] With all my heart firmly
[1.38] (in) worship of their deities I uprose
[1.39] in reverence for
Nebo their Lord.

Column 4:
[4.7] A temple for sacrifices, the lofty citadel
[4.8] of
Bel and Merodach, god of gods,
[4.9] a threshold of joy and supremacy
[4.10] among angels and spirits,
Column 5:
[5.19] as a shrine of the great Lord, the god Merodach
[5.20] I built as a house for processions.
[5.21, 22] I his eldest son, the chosen of his heart,
[5.23, 24]
Imgur-Bel and Nimetti-Bel
Panel from palace of
Tiglath-Pileser
Fortress built on ruins of KIR
MEDEBA Plateau from Mt. NEBO
Ruins of DIBON
MOABITE Stone
TIGLATH-PILESAR, King of Assyria
TIGLATH-PILESAR inscription
Unidentified Cushite Queen
c. 725 BC
Excavation of Assyrian-style palace
in ASHDOD, for Sargon's
representative
ETHIOPIAN PHARAOH Taharqa
King MERODACH BALADAN
of Babylon
Babylonian Chronicle covering
Nebuchadnezzar's reign 605-594
BC, including capture and later
burning of JERUSALEM
Ruins of NEBUCHADNEZZAR'S
palace in Babylon (Iraq)
King CYRUS of Persia
Statue of NABU/NEBO,
Babylonian god of writing,
Oriental Museum, Chicago
            JEREMIAH

JEREMIAH 22:11 ~ This is what the Lord says about Shallum (Jehoahaz) son of Josiah. (Shallum
became king of Judah after his father Josiah died.) “Jehoahaz has gone away from Jerusalem. He will
never come back to Jerusalem again."

Fragments of 21 letters hurriedly written on pieces of clay pottery during a siege by troops of
Nebuchadnezzar around 588 BC.  They are from an outpost of Lachish to the captain of the guard who
was defending Lachish.  They  were found by archaeologists J. LO. Starkey and Sir Charles Marston.  in a
deposit of ash and charcoal on the floor of the guard room where defenders of Lachish had made their
last stand.  

“The letter of Nedabiah, servant of the king which came to Shallum from the prophet”.  Nadabiah was
grandson of King Kehoiakim.  
Shallum (Jehoahas) was brother of Jehoiakim who had been taken to
Egypt.


JEREMIAH 26:22; 36:12 ~ But King Jehoiakim sent a man named Elnathan and some other men to
Egypt.
Elnathan was the son of a man named Acbor.  When Micaiah heard the messages from the scroll,
he went down to the secretary’s room in the king’s palace. All of the royal officials were sitting there in the
king’s palace. These are the names of those officials....
Elnathan son of Acbor....

The Lachish letters were actually hurriedly written on pieces of pottery clay as messages to and from the
city of Lachish that was apparently being beseiged by Sennacherib's troops from Assyria.  They are on
display at the British Museum in London.  The pictured relief is from his palace in Nineveh, also displayed
at the same museum.

Letter three of the Lachish letters mentions
Elnathan:  “The commander of the army, Coniah son of
Elnathan, has arrived and will shortly leave for Egypt.” ....”And as for the letter from the servant of the
king, Tobiah, which came to Shallum son of Jaddu’a through the prophet, saying ‘Be on your guard!’, your
subject has sent it to my lord.”

Elnathan was the grandfather of King Jehoiachin and father-in-law of king Jehoiakim. (See 2 Kings 24:8-
17)


JEREMIAH 28:1 ~ In the fifth month of the fourth year that Zedekiah was king of Judah, Hananiah the
prophet spoke to me.
Hananiah was the son of a man named Azzur.

In 1975, nearly 250 clay seals impressions were found about 44 miles southwest of Jerusalem. The seal
impression of
Hananiah was among them.   It reads "Hananiah, son of Azariah" (Azzur).


JEREMIAH 35:3 ~ So I (Jeremiah) went to get Jaazaniah.  Jaazaniah was the son of a man named
Jeremiah, that was the son of a man named Habazziniah. And I got all of
Jaazaniah’s brothers and sons. I
got the whole family of the Recabites together.

The seal of Jaazaniah was found at Mizpah.  Jaazaniah was the head of the Racabite clan and apparently
a representative of the clan to the king, or had other responsibilities of the king.  His seal reads:  
"Jaazniah, Servant of the King".


JEREMIAH 36:4, 8 ~ So Jeremiah called a man named Baruch. Baruch was the son of Neriah. Jeremiah
spoke the messages the Lord had given him. While Jeremiah spoke, Baruch wrote those messages on
the scroll....So
Baruch son of Neriah did everything Jeremiah the prophet told him to do. Baruch read
aloud the scroll that had the Lord’s messages written on it. He read it in the Lord’s temple.

(There are many references to Barach throughout the book of Jeremiah, since he was Jeremiah's scribe.)

Among them was Barach's seal impression.
 “Berekh-yahu son of Neriyahu the scribe.”


JEREMIAH 36:4; 51:59 ~ So Jeremiah called a man named Baruch. Baruch was the son of Neriah.
Jeremiah spoke the messages the Lord had given him. While Jeremiah spoke, Baruch wrote those
messages on the scroll....This is the message that Jeremiah gave to the officer Seraiah.  Seraiah was the
son of
Neriah. Neriah was the son of Mahseiah.

Neriah, was the father of Jeremiah’s scribe, Baruch, and also of Seriah (mentioned below). Neriah is
mentioned in the Lachish letters as being father of Baruch and Seriah, as well as on their seals.  


JEREMIAH 36:7 ~ This was while the army of the king of Babylon was fighting against Jerusalem. The
army of Babylon was also fighting against the cities of Judah that had not been captured. Those cities
were Lachish and
Azekah. These were the only fortified cities left in the land of Judah.

When the Philistines showed of Goliath, troops were camped between Sokho and Azekah (1 Samuel 17).
King Rehoboam fortified the town along with Lachish and other strategic sites (2 Chronicles 11:5-10).
Lachish and Azekah were the last two towns to fall to the Babylonians before the overthrow of Jerusalem
itself.

One of the Lachish letters (IV) indicates that
Azekah did finally fall:  “I will send for him tomorrow at
daylight. And let it be known to my master that we will be looking for the signals from Lachish, according to
the instructions which he has given, for no signals from
Azekah have been seen.”


JEREMIAH 36:10-12 ~ This is what the letter said…. Baruch was in the room of Gemariah in the upper
courtyard when he read from the scroll. That room was located at the entrance of the New Gate of the
temple.
Gemariah was the son of Shaphan. ...messages from the Lord that Baruch read from the scroll.
Micaiah was the son of
Gemariah, the son of Shaphan. ...All of the royal officials were sitting there in the
king’s palace. These are the names of those officials: ...
Gemariah son of Shaphan....

Gemariah, son of Shaphan, was a scribe and officer of King Zedekiah.  The imprint of his seal has been
found.  It reads “Gemariah, son of Shaphan”  Also, one of the Lachish letters mentions Gemariah.


JEREMIAH 36:12 ~ When Micaiah heard the messages from the scroll, he went down to the secretary’s
room in the king’s palace. All of the royal officials were sitting there in the king’s palace. These are the
names of those officials:
Elishama the secretary, Delaiah son of Shemaiah....and all the other royal
officials were there too.

The seal impression of "Elishama, servant of the king" was found among the others near Jerusalem.


JEREMIAH 36:26 ~ And King Jehoiakim commanded some men to arrest Baruch the scribe and Jeremiah
the prophet. Those men were
Jerahmeel, a son of the king, Seraiah son of Azriel, and Shelemiah son of
Abdeel.

The seal impression of Jerahmeel was found among the numerous seal impressions found near
Jerusalem.  It reads, "
Jerahmeel, son of the king"


JEREMIAH 37:3; 38:1 ~ King Zedekiah sent a man named Jehucal and the priest Zephaniah to Jeremiah
the prophet with a message.
Jehucal was the son of Shelemiah. The priest Zephaniah was the son of
Maaseiah....Some of the royal officials heard what Jeremiah was preaching. They were....Jehucal son of
Shelemiah.

The seal impression of Jehucal has been found.  It reads, " Jehucal son of Shelemiah son of Shavi".


JEREMIAH 38:6 ~ So those officials took Jeremiah and put him into Malkijah’s cistern. (Malkijah was
the king’s son.) That cistern was in the temple yard where the king’s guard stayed. Those officials used
ropes to lower Jeremiah into the cistern. The cistern didn’t have any water in it, but only mud. And
Jeremiah sank down into the mud

The seal impression of Malkijah has been found and reads, "Milchiah, Son of the King".


JEREMIAH 39:2-3; 46:3 ~ And on the ninth day of the fourth month in Zedekiah’s eleventh year, the wall
of Jerusalem was broken through. Then all the royal
officials of the king of Babylon came into the city of
Jerusalem. They came in and sat down at the Middle Gate. These are the names of those officials....

Nebo Sarsekim,
another very high official; and various other important officials were there also.

In 2007, Austrian Assyriologist Michael Jursa was deciphering as many as possible of the more than
100,000 cuneiform tablets in the British Museum. In June, he analyzed records from the Babylonian city of
Sippar.  Among them, he found a receipt for a one-and-a-half pound gold donation to a temple made by
an official, the
"chief eunuch Nebo-Sarsekim."


JEREMIAH 39:2, 4 ~ And on the ninth day of the fourth month in Zedekiah’s eleventh year, the wall of
Jerusalem was broken through....Zedekiah king of Judah saw those officials from Babylon, so he and the
soldiers with him
ran away. They left Jerusalem at night. They went out through the king’s garden and
out through the gate that was between the two walls.
Then they went toward the desert.

In 1967, archaeologist Vendyl Jones and his son, Gersham, found this gate between the two walls.  Near
the Damascus Gate (built in the 1500s) and
inside the wall of Jerusalem is the entrance the
Grotto/Cave of Zedekiah.
 It works its way under the Temple Mount for 19 miles and comes out in the
Valley of Achor.  While exploring the chambers on the
north side of the Zedekiah Cave, they came to a
large side chamber with high ceilings, and to one side of it a non-bonded wall ~ a wall of stone laid
alternately with each other.  In this outer wall was the gateway.

The outer wall was apparently one built by the Jebusites before David arrived and renamed Jebus the City
of David and later Jerusalem.


JEREMIAH 40:5, 8 ~ Or go back to Gedaliah son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan. The king of Babylon
has chosen
Gedaliah to be governor over the towns of Judah....So those soldiers came to Gedaliah at
Mizpah. Those soldiers were: Ishmael son of Nethaniah, Johanan, and his brother Jonathan, sons of
Kareah, Seraiah son of Tanhumeth, sons of Ephai from Netophah, and Jaazaniah son of the Maacathite,
and the men that were with them.

Gedaliah is mentioned often in Jeremiah because of his having been appointed by Nebuchadnezzar as
the governor of the cities of Judah.

A seal impression was found in the Jerusalem cache, and it reads "Gedaliah, servant of the king."

At Lachish, archaeologist Starkey, found in the layer of ashes left by Nebuchadnezzar’s fire among the
Lachish Letters another seal of
Gedaliah, probably used later.  It confirms that Gedaliah was over the
cities of Judah, "the house of" usually referring to "the dynasty of".  Inscribed on it is: “Belonging to
Gedaliah, the one  who is over the house.”


JEREMIAH 40:8 ~ So those soldiers came to Gedaliah at Mizpah. Those soldiers were: Ishmael son of
Nethaniah, Johanan, and his brother Jonathan, sons of Kareah, Seraiah son of Tanhumeth, sons of Ephai
from Netophah, and
Jaazaniah son of the Maacathite, and the men that were with them.

Jaazaniah was one of Gedaliah’s army captains.  Archaeologist W. F. Bade found in the ruins of Mizpah,
6 miles NW of Jerusalem, the seat of Gedaliah’s government, the actual exquisite agate seal inscribed,
“Belonging to
Jaazaniah, servant of the king.”


JEREMIAH 40:14 ~ Johanan and those officers with him said to Gedaliah, “Do you know that Baalis, the
king of the Ammonite people, wants to kill you? He has sent Ishmael son of Nethaniah to kill you.”

The actual seal of King Baalis, who wanted to kill Gedaliah, has been found:  It reads "Baalyisha, King of
the ...."  

Also, the seal of his servant has been found and it reads:  "Millikamor, servant of
Baalishas"


JEREMIAH 43:7-9; 44:1 ~ Those people didn’t listen to the Lord. So all those people went to Egypt. They
went to the town of
Tahpanhes. them and bury them in the clay and brick sidewalk in front of Pharaoh’s
Official building in
Tahpanhes. In the town of Tahpanhes, Jeremiah received this message from the
Lord…. The message was for the people of Judah living in the towns of Migdol,
Tahpanhes, Memphis,
and southern Egypt....

Tahpahnes was an Egyptian frontier palace fort on the route to Palestine.  Its site has been identified
about 10 miles west of the Suez Canal.  Archaeologist Flinders Petrie uncovered the ruins of a large
castle, in front of which was a great open air platform of brick work.  Pictured is a drawing of the Egyptian
palace that was once there, based on the excavated foundation and artifacts found there.


JEREMIAH 43:10-11 ~ ....‘This is what the Lord All-Powerful, the God of Israel, says: I will send for
Nebuchadnezzar, the king of
Babylon, to come here. He is my servant. And I will set his throne over
these stones I have buried here. Nebuchadnezzar will spread his canopy above these stones.
Nebuchadnezzar will come here and attack
Egypt.

The self-imposed exiles from Judah arrived at Tahpahnes in 586 BC. A clay tablet, now in the British
Museum, states: "In the 37th year of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the country of Babylon, he went to Mitzraim
(Egypt) to make war.
Amasis, king of Egypt, collected [his army], and marched and spread abroad."   
Hophra was pharaoh at the time of the prediction.,  It was fulfilled 18 years later in 568 BC during the reign
of Pharaoh
Amasis.


JEREMIAH 51:59, 61 ~ This is the message that Jeremiah gave to the officer Seraiah. Seraiah was the
son of  Neriah. Neriah was the son of Mahseiah.
Seraiah went to Babylon with Zedekiah king of Judah.
This happened in the fourth year that Zedekiah was king of Judah. At that time, Jeremiah gave this
message to
Seraiah, the officer....Jeremiah said to Seraiah, “Seraiah, go to Babylon. Be sure to read
this message so all the people can hear you.

Seraiah’s seal has also been found, it is inscribed with the following words: “Seriahu, son of Neriahu”.  He
was Jeremiah's scribe's (Barach's) brother.  See above under his father, Neriahu.
Seal Impression of
BARACH, son of Neriyahu,
scribe of Jeremiah
Tel LACHISH
LACHISH letters
Seal of Milchiah, Son of the King
Seal impression of
HANANIAH son of AZARIAH
Seal impression of
GEMARIAH, son of Shaphan
Seal Impression of
ELISHAMA, Servant of the King
Drawing of seal of
JERAHMEEL, Son of the King
Drawing of seal of
JEHUCAL
Seal of BAALIS,
King of Ammon
Seal of MILLIKAMOR
Servant of Baalishas
Seal Impression of
GEDALIAH, Servant of the King
Seal of GEDALIAH
Governor of Judea
Seal and impression of
JAAZANIAH, Servant of the King
Seal impression of
SERIAH, son of NERIAH
Tel Azekah



NEBO SARSEKIM Tablet of Babylon
The gate between the walls of
Jerusalem
Pharaoh AMASIS
defeated by
Nebuchadnezzar
                  EZEKIEL

EZEKIEL 25:5 ~ “‘I will make the city Rabbah a pasture for camels and the country of Ammon a sheep
pen. Then you will know that I am the Lord.

Rabbath/Rabbath is the ancient name for today's city of Amman, Jordan.  It was the capital of Moab.   Tel
Al Umeiri
, is located just three miles south of Amman. A four-room house dating back to around 2000 BC
has been found here.  In 1984, a seal impression was discovered "Belonging to Milkom, the servant of
Baalyassa."  This King Baalyassa seal is shown above in "Jeremiah" and date to around 600 BC.  In
Rabbath-Ammon itself, a building inscription was found dating to around 900 BC.

Up until the time of Nebuchadnezzar, Moab was a progressive nation.  But there was a period of time when
Persia ruled the world, that Moab disappeared from historical records of that time. Its territory was overrun
by waves of tribes from northern Arabia, But during the time of Greek world domination, they were building
back.  Today, Rabbath/Rabbath/Ammon has a population of some 3 million people


EZEKIEL 27:8 ~ Men from Sidon and Arvad rowed your boats for you.

Sidon was and is a seaport of Phoenecia, later called Lebanon.  It is located on a 20-mile-wide strip
between the Lebanon Mountains and Mediterranean Sea.  It became famous for its embroider, metal and
glass work, as well as maritime skills.  
Sidon was rich famous centuries ago, and was written about among
the first few books of the Bible and by Homer.  Eventually it fell drastically in influence and power and
population.  However, it has returned to become a modern city.

Arvad was also caled Arwad and was and is an island city off the coast of Syria some 30 miles North of
Tripoli.  It had a powerful navy, and its ships are mentioned in the monuments of Egypt and Assyria.   It is
also mentioned in the Tell Amarna Letters as helping the Amorites attacks Egyptian possessions in Syria
(44 and 28, B.M. Tell el-Amarna Letters).  Tiglath-pileser I (c. 1020) boasts that he sailed in the ships of
Arvad. 200 men of Arvad are mentioned among the allies of Benhadad, of Damascus against
Shalmaneser II (c. 854).  Today it has reduced to a minor, sparsely populated fishing village.



EZEKIEL 27:21 ~ Arabia and all the leaders of Kedar traded lambs, rams, and goats for your goods.

Kedar is also Qedar, Qi-idra, or Qadra.  Kedar was a large well-organized nomadic tribe in Northern
Arabia that around the 6th century BC controlled the Sinai Peninsula to the Persian Gulf.  Kedar/Qedar
was very influential in Arabia and apparently descended from Ishmael.

The first mention of them is on a stele (c. 737 BC) of Assyrian King Tiglath-Pileser III listing leaders from
the western part of Mesopatamia that paid him tribute, including
Qedar. The annals of King Sennacherib
of Assyria mention
Kedar/Qedar and Elam allied against him in his first campaign in 703 BC.  The
conquest of
Kedar/Qedar by Sennacherib in 690 BC  mentioned in the annals of the Assyrian monarchs.  
An engraved series of panels from the palace of Assyrian King Ashurbanipal (c. 668-627 BC) showing
Assyrians pursuing Arab Qedarites on camels

Often
Kedar/Qedar and Arabia were interchangeable.  King Hazael, who ruled c. 690–676 BC, is
described as a Qedarite king by Assyrian King Ashurbanipal, and
"king of the Arabs" by Assyrian King
Esarhaddon.


EZEKIEL 27:23 ~ Haran....the merchants of...Asshur...traded with you.

HARAN:  Harran is in southeast Turkey near the Syrian border, 24 miles southeast of Urfa and onn the
Balikh River.  It was founded around 2500 BC and became a major commercial, cultural, and religious
center.  It was located on the road that ran from Nineveh to Carchemish and important to the Assyrian
kings. Its chief deity in Assyrian times was that of the moon god.  Reconstructions of their typical cone-
shaped houses are available for viewing.  (Top picture on the right)

ASSHUR:  
Asshur was the earliest capital of ancient Assyria. The remains of the city are situated on the
western bank of river Tigris, north of the tributary Little Zab, .For over 2000 years successive kings built
and rebuilt the fortifications, temple and palace complexes.  More than 16,000 cuneiform tablets have
been uncovered there. Many relics are at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.  It is 60 miles South of today's
Mosul, Iraq in the Al-Shirqat District.  (Bottom picture on the right)


EZEKIEL 29:10 ~ The cities will be empty from Migdol to Aswan, and as far as the border of Ethiopia.

MIGDOL is discussed in the history section under Ezra.  
ASWAN is discussed in the history section under Ezra.
Above:
2000-yr-old
house

Left:
Amman Citidel
Inscription dated
c.600 BC
Ancient Ship of SIDON
Mediterranean Island of ARVAD
Qedarites/Kedarites in battle on
their camels
                     DANIEL

DANIEL 2:1, 38-41, 44-45, 48  ~ During Nebuchadnezzar’s second year as king, he had some dreams.
Those dreams bothered him and he could not sleep.....31“King [said Daniel], in your dream you saw a
large statue in front of you....
[BABYLONIAN EMPIRE 606-539 BC] "God has made you ruler over them all. King Nebuchadnezzar, you
are that
head of gold on the statue.
[MEDO-PERSIAN EMPIRE 539-331 BC] 39“Another kingdom will come after you— {that is the silver
part}. But that kingdom will not be as great as your kingdom.
[GRECIAN EMPIRE 331-169 BC] "Next, a third kingdom will rule over the earth—that is the bronze part.
[ROMAN EMPIRE 169 BC-476 AD] 40Then there will be a fourth kingdom. That kingdom will be strong
like iron. Iron breaks and smashes things to pieces.  In the same way, that fourth kingdom will smash and
break all the other kingdoms....
42The toes of the statue were
partly iron and partly clay. So the fourth kingdom will be partly strong like
iron, and partly weak like clay....the people of the fourth kingdom will be a mixture. Those people will not
be united as one people.
[THE CHURCH, THE KINGDOM OF JESUS CHRIST 30 AD - PRESENT/FUTURE] 44“During the time of
the kings {of the
fourth kingdom}, the God of heaven will set up another kingdom. This kingdom will
continue
forever! It will never be destroyed! And it will be the kind of kingdom that can’t be passed on to
another group of people.... 45“King Nebuchadnezzar, you saw a rock cut from a mountain—but
no person
cut that rock! The rock broke the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold to pieces
. In this
way, God showed you what will happen in the future....
====================================================================================

DANIEL 3:1 ~ King Nebuchadnezzar had a gold idol made. That idol was 60 cubits [27 meters, 88 feet]  
high and 6 cubits [2.7 meters, 8' 10"] wide.  Then he set the idol up on the plain of Dura in the province of
Babylon.

Was it possible to build such a tall statue around 600 BC?  The statues of Amenhotep III in Luxor, Egypt,
are 60 feet high and completed c. 1340 BC.  The seated Ramesses statues in Abu Simbel, Egypt, are 70'
high and completed c. 1265 BC.  The Obelisk of Hatshepsut in Karnak, Egypt, is 97 feet high and 6 feet
wide, and completed around 1460 BC.


DANIEL 5:1-2 ~ King Belshazzar gave a big party for 1,000 of his officials. The king was drinking wine
with them. As
Belshazzar was drinking his wine, he ordered his servants to bring the gold and silver cups.
These were the cups that his grandfather Nebuchadnezzar had taken from the temple in Jerusalem.
King
Belshazzar
wanted his royal people, his wives and his women slaves to drink from those cups.

Belshazzar's father was Nabo-Nidus (Nabu-Na'id).  King Nabu-Nidus' patron god was Sin.  He repaired
temples to the gods Esagila, Ezida, and Egis-nugal in three cities.  In Ur, he repaired the ziggurat of
Egišnugal, and buried a
cylindar dedicating his repairs of all three temples to his favorite god, Sin.  It is
on display at the British Museum in London.  It reads in part as follows:  

"O Sin, my lord 'gods', king of the gods of heaven and the netherworld, 'gods' of the gods, who dwells in
the great heavens, when you joyfully enter that temple, may good recommendations for Esagila, Ezida.
Egišnugal, the temples of your great godhead....As for
me, Nabonidus, king of Babylon, save me from
sinning against your great godhead and grant me as a present a life long of days, and as for
Belshazzar,
the eldest son
- my offspring- instill reverence for your great godhead in his heart and may he not
commit any religious mistake, may he be sated with a life of plenitude."

But the patron god of Babylon was Marduk.  The priests of Marduk led an uprising, so King Nabu-Nidus
made his son,
Belshazzar, coregent, then went into self-imposed exile in Arabia.  British Museum tablet
38299
states:  "[Nabonidus] entrusted the army  to his oldest son, his first born, the troops in the country
he ordered under his command. He let everything go, entrusted the kingship (Akk. šarrûtu) to him, and,
himself, he started out for a long journey."


DANIEL 5:1,5,28 ~ King Belshazzar gave a big party for 1,000 of his officials. The king was drinking wine
with them.  Then all of a sudden, a man’s hand appeared and began writing on the wall. The fingers
scratched words into the plaster on the wall. The hand wrote on the wall there in the king’s house near the
lampstand. The king was watching the hand as it wrote ….”
Your kingdom is being taken from you It will be
divided among the
Medes and Persians.”

Much of the Babylon ruins remain today, having been excavated by German archaeologists.  The walls of
the palace where the message appeared to Belshazzar are still there.  


DANIEL 6:29 ~ Then Belshazzar gave an order for Daniel to be dressed in purple clothes. A gold chain
was put around his neck, and he was announced to be the third highest ruler in the kingdom.

Daniel was rewarded by King Belshazzar for being the only one who could decipher the writing on the wall.  
As arranged, he was dressed as royalty and became third highest ruler.  His father, Nabu-Nidus, was still  
alive in Arabia, but king in name only.  Balshazzar was king in deed.  So that would make Daniel the third
highest ruler of Babylon.


DANIEL 5:30-31; 6:28; 9:1 ~ That very same night, Belshazzar, king of the Babylonian people, was killed.
A man named
Darius the Mede became the new king (governor?). Darius was about 62 years old....So
Daniel was successful during the time that
Darius was king and during the time that Cyrus the Persian
was king
….These things happened during the first year that Darius was king. Darius was the son of a
man named Ahasuerus.
Darius belonged to the Median people. He became king over Babylon.

Notice that Darius was a Mede and Cyrus a Persian.  Nothing is known yet about this Darius, but this wise
old man apparently directed Babylon when the Medes and Persians were first uniting.  We do know that
Cyrus had taken control of Babylon by his third year (Daniel 10:1).  The Nabu-Nidas Chronicle (part of the
Babylonian Chronicles) tells of the night Cyrus' troops conquered the city without any bloodshed.  It is on
display at the British Museum in London.

"When Cyrus attacked the army of Akkad in Opis [i.e., Baghdad] on the Tigris....The sixteenth day,
Gobryas [litt: Ugbaru], the governor of Gutium, and the army of Cyrus
entered Babylon without battle.
Afterwards, Nabonidus was arrested in Babylon when he returned there.....but nobody carried arms in
Esagila [Babylon] and its buildings."   
Babylonian
god
Nebo/Nabu
King Nabu-Nidus worshiping sun,
moon, & Venus
Nabu-Nidus Cylindar
Ruins of BABYLON
Reproduction of Main gate into
BABYLON
Nabu-Nidas Chronicle
Nebuchadnezzar's DREAM of future
                    HOSEA


HOSEA 2:8, 17: 11:2 ~ But the Israelites used this silver and gold to make statues of Baal....I will take
away the names of the Baals out of her mouth. Then people will not use the Baals’ names again....The
Israelites gave sacrifices to the Baals.  They burned incense to the idols.

The term Ba'al simply means lord, so to worship Ba'al means to worship any lord, whether man or god, of
one's choosing.  Since productivity of families and fields prevailed for one's survival in agricultural
societies,
any god that influenced this was popular.  To "worship" them often mean prostitute
"priestesses".  Other practices were violent and ecstatic exercises and even cutting oneself.  In some
cases, human sacrifice was practiced.    Worship of the
Ba'als was often so terrible, that eventually the
word mean demon, not god.  

Archaeological digs at
Ras Shamra (Ugarit in Philistia) and Ebla uncovered much about Syrian gods as
well as the demon
 Ba‘al Zebûb, god of the underworld. They uncovered a statue of Ba'al which is now on
display at the Louvre in Paris.
Statue of BAAL
Excavation of RAS SHAMRA
                   JONAH

JONAH 1:3 ~ Jonah did not want to obey God,} so Jonah tried to run away from the Lord. Jonah went to
Joppa.

Joppa existed as a city as early as the 15th century BC.  It is the center of an Egyptian epic written with the
hero of the tale being the great conqueror Thut-Mose III.  It is called "The Taking of
Joppa".  It is recorded
on Papyrus Harris 500 in the possession of the British Museum in London, and on file with them as P 10060.

Joppa is also mentioned in the Amarna Letters of the early 14th century.  These letters are explained in
more detail in the Bible History archaeological section.


JONAH 3:1-5, 7-10 ~ Then the Lord spoke to Jonah again. The Lord said, “Go to that big city Nineveh,
and preach the things that I tell you.” So Jonah obeyed the Lord and went to Nineveh. Nineveh was a very
big city. A person had to
walk for three days to travel through the city. Jonah went to the center of the
city and began preaching to the people. Jonah said, “After 40 days,
Nineveh will be destroyed!” The people
of
Nineveh believed {the message from} God….. The king sent this message through the city… People
must cry loudly to God. Every person must change his life and stop doing bad things. Then maybe God will
change and not do the things he had planned….God saw the things the people did. God saw that the
people stopped doing evil things.  So God changed and did not do what he planned. God did not punish the
people.

Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian Empire.  Today, Nineveh's location is marked by two large mounds,
Kouyunjik and Nabī Yūnus "Prophet Jonah",   The ruins of Nineveh are surrounded by the remains of a
massive stone and mud brick wall dating from about 700 BC. About 20 miles long and 20 feet high.  Every
60 feet there was a watchtower.  The wall had 15 gates in and out of the city.

Jonah warned the city to repent (and they did) around 775 BC.  Nineveh finally fell in 612 BC.  Other than
excavations of one of its two mounds decades ago, no other excavations have been allowed.  The same is
true of Babylon.  However, the government of Iraq and scholars do agree these are the mounds that once
was Nineveh.
"The Taking of JOPPA" Epic
Kuyunjik, the palace mound of
NINEVEH
(Google Earth photo)