If nothing else is said, all our quotations from the Quran are from “The Holy Qur’an”, translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, the 2000
edition from Wordsworth Classics, printed with permission from Islamic Propagation Centre, Islamic Vision, 434 Coventry Road,
Birmingham, B10 OUG, UK. Mr. A. Yusuf Ali is reckoned by Muslims to be one of the top 3 translators of the Quran to English (the
other two are Pikthall and Shakir), if not THE best.

According to Muslim sources, the story goes that the Quran got its final content ca. 650 AD (not later than 656 AD under the third
caliph, Uthman). But that is not 100% true – actually far from 100% true. This partly because even if everybody was ordered to burn
old Qurans and only keep the new, official one,
it took at least 100 - 200 years and may be more (books after all were valuable -
and represented the religion like they had learnt it)
before all other ones were destroyed, and the texts were known to many
educated people. This resulted in changes now and then in texts as they were copied - by hand.

Besides the Arab written language at that time lacked the short vowels and also still had none of the points Arabs today use when
writing (the so-called dicrital points) and the other signs like full stop, comma, etc. - the
written Arab language/the alphabet was
not perfected until around 900 AD.
Because of that, it frequently is difficult even today to know what word really was written, as
one has to guess what vowels to use and what signs are missing. In cases where more than one meaning is possible, all the
different possible meanings are judged to be correct by Islam – but they are called “ways of reading” to camouflage that there really
are different varieties of the text.

And also in the Hadith (explanation in next chapter) it is said that according to
Muhammad, the Quran was sent down in 7
versions
that all were correct, even where they differed. Not to mentioned all the different varieties that existed in earlier times
because of the unclear language. (f. ex. in 1972 a number of very old Qurans were found in Yemen. They turned out to have “small,
but significant differences” compared to modern ones - and then western scientists were denied access.) So when a Muslim tells the
Quran is always correct, it is pertinent to ask him which Quran (the Arabic Quran dominating today, is the one that happened to be
dominant in Egypt when they printed an edition in 1924, the one after Hafs, whereas the one after Warsh is used in parts of Africa,
especially North Africa).

Actually for a long time there were 14 - fourteen - canonised versions of the book (Ibn Warraq: “Why I am not a Muslim” and others):
Even after Uthman’s version, there were lots of others, partly because of the unclear alphabet. Then there was made a “final”
canonisation influenced by the great Muslim teacher Ibn Mohair (dead 935 AD). They stated that 7 variants (other Muslim teachers
accepted 10 to 14) had to be accepted as correct. But as each existed in two versions, one ended up with 14 different, all accepted
as correct, because it was fully possible to understand the original in those different ways (and actually more), as the original as
mentioned was written by means of a far from perfect alphabet. (To make an example in English: If you know that the vowels are
omitted, and you have two letters you think represents a word - f. ex. “h” and “s” - the word can as well be “house” as “hose” or even
“his“ or “has“).

These are the
canonized 14 versions (they called it “ways of reading” – as said to hide that there were many variants). 1. name
is the editor, 2. and 3. names are the narrators:

1+2: Nafi from Medina after Warsh or Qalun.
3+4: Ibn Kathir from Mecca after al-Bazzi or Qunbul.
5+6: Ibn Amir from Damascus after Hisham or Ibn Dhakwan.
7+8: Abu Amr from Basra after al-Duri or al-Susi.
9+10: Asim from Kufa after Hafs or Abu Bakr (not the caliph).
11+12: Hamza from Kufa after Khalaf or Khallad.
13+14: Al-Kisai from Kufa after al-Duri or Abul Harith.

As you understand there is a good reason for asking Muslims which Quran is the one perfect and without mistakes - and which one
Allah really sent down (if he did). Only one of these really can be 100% correct - and may be none. Most likely none - too many
varieties are possible. And too many mistakes etc. in the book.

Over the years 3 of these 14 came to dominate: Nafi after Warsh, Asim after Hafs and Abu Amr after al-Duri. And today there
mostly are two versions that are used: Asim after Hafs - the one used when printed in Egypt in 1924 - and Nafi after Warsh (used in
parts of Africa). Asim after Hafs is dominant today, but Nafi after Warsh as mentioned is used in large parts of Africa.

As the question of mistakes is very essential for Islam, we have chosen to quote all places where we have found something that
clearly is wrong (numbered by numbers) or very likely wrong (numbered by letters). This means that the same mistake often will be
repeated in different connections. We have chosen to mention most of them, so the reader will be able to find the places - if it is too
boring to read repetitions many times, read the short list instead. You also will find many answers repeated many times (not in the
short list) - simply because the Quran tells the same stories and the same tales again and again (and often in boring prose - not
good literature, no matter what Muslims say).

And: During all these centuries lots of explanations for the mistakes have emerged (We will mention some of them). Some may be
true, some make question marks, and a lot obviously are just fast-talk. Use your knowledge and your brain when you meet such
explanations: Are they reliable explanations? Is it something that demands more research? Or is it simply fast-talk? All too often it is
fast-talk.
FROM BOOK "1000 MIstAKES IN THE QURAN"
(See table of contents at end below)

PART I, CHAPTER 9 (= I-9-0-0)
THE MAKING AND TRANSLATION OF THE QURAN, THE HOLY BOOK OF
MUHAMMAD, MUSLIMS, ISLAM, AND ALLAH
- AND SOME QUOTES
(PART I, CHAPTERS 1 - 14 = SOME SPECIAL ASPECTS OF ISLAM AS TOLD IN THE QURAN - THE HOLY BOOK OF MUHAMMAD,
MUSLIMS, ISLAM, AND ALLAH.)
PART II, CHAPTER 2 (= II-2-0-0)


GRAMMATICAL MISTAKES AND ERRORS IN THE QURAN -
THE HOLY BOOK OF MUHAMMAD, MUSLIMS, ISLAM, AND ALLAH

For the fact mistakes and errors based on themes, see Part II, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, Sections 1 through 16.
Grammatical mistakes are at least as bad as foreign words in the book, as they more clearly are mistakes, but see the introduction to
the chapter about foreign words in the Quran (chapter II/3).The examples below are from P. Rafiqul-Haqq and P. Newton: “The
Quran: Grammatical Errors” (A book not liked by Muslims, just because it documents mistakes in the Quran, but the book has stood
against intense critic - and slander). But beware that we also have taken some samples from Internet, and therefore they should be
used with care - and if you find mistakes, please inform us.

There are Muslims saying there cannot be grametical errors in the Quran, because the Arab grammar was developed during the
work with the Quran (NB: Not around 650 AD, but during the periode of forming the book – i. e. during the some 250 years up to c.
900 AD when the Quran after much polishing finally had gotten something like the form it has today). That is likely to be true – but a
grammar is made from a language, not from a single book. Plus: Even if they made grammatical rules, that does not mean they were
able to follow them always.

Also beware that the words are transcribed from Arab letters - different transcribers may transcribe the sounds a little different - a
normal occurrence when something is transcribed from a language with another alphabet.

1.2/177: aaman should be tu’minuu.
2.2/177: aata should be tu’tuu (2 times).
3.2/177: aqaama should be tuqimuu.
4.2/177: sasbriina should be saabiruuna (because its position in the sentence - and plural should be masculine). 5 mistakes in one
verse.
5.3/59: Kun feekunu should be Kun fekaana.
6.4/162: mukiimiin (feminine plural) should be mukiimuun (masculine plural - see 7/160).
7.5/69: Saabbi’uuna should be Sabi’iina. (= Sabians).
8.7/56: qaribun should be qariba.
9.7/160: asbatan (feminine plural) should be sebtan (masculine - human plurals are male in Arab).
10.20/63: haazaani should be haazayn.
11.21/3: ‘asarru should be ‘assarra.
12.22/19: ‘ikhtasamuu should be ‘ikhtasamaa.
13.41/11: at’e’een should be at’e’atain.
14.49/9: ‘eq-tatalu should be ‘eqtatalata.
15.63/10: ‘akun should be ‘akuuna.
16.63/20: hadhane (nominative) should be hadhayne (accusative).
17.91/5: ma should be man.
There are more but this should show that there are grammatical mistakes (mostly declinations) in the Quran - many or few does not
matter too much, as a god makes no mistakes at all. According to Ali Dashti: “Twenty-Three Years: A study of the Prophetic Career
of Muhammad” there are more than 100 divergences in the Quran from normal Arab linguistic rules and structures.

A clear conclusion: Correct and good Arab language in the Quran cannot be used as a proof for that Allah sent down the Quran, as
there are numerous mistakes – on the contrary: The mistakes may prove that no god was involved.
PART II, CHAPTER 3 (= II-3-0-0)

NON-ARAB WORDS IN THE QURAN -
THE HOLY BOOK OF MUHAMMAD, MUSLIMS, ISLAM, AND ALLAH
The Quran very strongly stresses that it is written in pure and correct Arabic. Normally some non-Arabic words should not
mean very much, but as both the Quran, Islam and Muslims stress the
pure and correct language as a “sign”/”proof” for that
the book is made by Allah
, it becomes serious. An omniscient god using the purity of the language as a proof for his authorship,
would not use one single non-Arabic word - this even more so as in most cases corresponding Arab words did exist. One Muslim
“explanation” (set forth by the in philology educated scholar Muslim Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti, dead 1505 AD) is that Arabs have used the
words so much, that they have made them Arab. Like many Muslim “explanations” concerning mistakes in the Quran, it is very ad
hoc, and strongly marked by the intense necessity to find some explanation, and by the fact that this was the only one possible one -
good or not they have to use it. The language - and the “explanation” - is not pure enough and good enough to prove Allah’s
existence, his connection to Muhammad, or Allah’s authorship.

Pure Arab also is the language spoken in Heaven according to some Islamic literature (and some Muslim sects - notably the
Amaddijjas - have “proved” it also is the original language on Earth, believe it or not.)

12/2: “We (Allah*) have sent it down as an Arabic Quran - - -.”

13/37: “Thus heve We (Allah*) revealed it (the Quran*) to be a judgement of authority in Arabic.”

16/103: “’It is a man that teaches him (Muhammad*)’. (But*) The tongue of him they point to (a learned foreigner*) is notably foreign,
while this is Arabic, pure and clear”. The proof is invalid (even if the teacher was a foreigner, Muhammad's retelling would depend on
Muhammad's choice of words), also because the language is not “pure and clean”.

41/44: “Unfortunately for their (non-Muslims*) postulate (that Muhammad had a foreign teacher*), any possible human teacher they
could think of would be poor in Arabic speech if they had all the knowledge that the Quran reveals of previous revelations (the
Bible*). Apart from that, even the most eloquent Arab could not, and cannot, produce anything with the eloquence, width, and depth
of Quranic teaching, as if evident from every verse of the book (the Quran*)”.

Well, the language proves nothing here, too, as it is not “pure and clean Arab” and as it in case was Muhammad's choise of words
that were spread, not the possible teacher's. (Also; really the Quran does not show much knowledge about the Bible, but more about
the non-Biblical legends and tales that were rife and popular in Arabia - and beyond - at the time of Muhammad. A teacher that really
knew the Bible, had told the Quran very differently. The verse proves nothing.)

It is here also worth remembering:

1.The old Arab alphabet only had the consonants - it even today is unclear what is the real meaning of many sentences.
2.The old Arab alphabet did not have the points (“diacritical marks”) used later to mark different letters.
3.The old Arab alphabet did not have marks like full stop or comma – even though many a Muslim today claims that the Hafs version
of the Quran he is reading – or may be the Warsh version if he is from Africa – is an exact copy of Muhammad’s words “down to the
last comma”.
4.The written Arab language and alphabet was not perfected until ca. 900 AD - perfect writing was impossible around 650 AD when
the official Quran was made.
But all the same the use of imported words in a book trying to use perfect Arab language as a proof for divine origin, tells that it is not
made by an omniscient god - he had not made such mistakes.

We stress that the following samples partly are taken from Internet, as our Arab is not up to that standard. Therefore it must be used
carefully, and if you find mistakes, please inform us. It only is meant as a taste - according to experts there are a lot more:

1.Acadian:
2.Adam = man or mankind. The correct Arab word: Basharan or insane.
3.Eden = garden. The correct Arab word: Janna.
4.Aramaic:
5.Qiyama = resurrection.
6.Assyrian:
7.Abraham/Ibrahim - a name. The correct Arab equivalent: Abu Raheem.
8.Egyptian:
9.Pharaoh = king or potentate (also a title). Used 84 times in the Quran.
10.Ethiopic:
11.Malak = angel (2/33)
12.Greek:
13.Iblis - corruption of the Greek word diabolos = devil.
14.Injil - corruption of the Greek word eua(n)ggelion = Gospel. Correct.
15.Hebrew:
16.Ahbar = teacher.
17.Darasa = to find the deepest meanings of the scriptures by exact and thorough studies.
18.Furquan (also used in Syriac, pwrqn) = to make free, salvation.
19.Issa or Isa = Esau (brother of the patriarch Jacob). The Quran says it means Jesus. Correct Arab for Jesus: Yeshuwa.
20.Jahannam (Gehinnom or Gehenna) = originally the valley of Hennom or Hinnom near Jerusalem, intensely used for Pagan (Baal)
sacrifices to fire, and it therefore later gave the name to Hell.
21.Jannatu Adn = paradise, Garden of Eden (today reckoned by science to have been in south Iraq – if it ever existed).
22.Malakut = reign, the country of Allah/God. NB: No original Arab word ends with -ut.
23.Masani = repetition.
24.Maun = to find sanctuary.
25.Rabbani = teacher.
26.Sabt = day of rest (Sabbath).
27.Sakinat = the presence of Allah/God.
28.Tabut = ark.
29.Taghut = mistake.
30.orah (Taurat) = Jewish holy scriptures, the Torah.
31.Tufan = deluge
32.There also are Hebrew words like; heber, sakinah, maoon, turat, jehannim.
33.Persian:
34.Firdaus = the highest or 7. Heaven. Correct Arab: Jannah.
35.Haroot or Harut = Persian name for angel. Also see “Maroot”.
36.Hoor = disciple. Correct Arab: Tilmeeth.
37.Jinn = good or bad demon. Correct Arab: Ruh.
38.Maroot or Marut = Persian name for angel. May in reality be the Hindu god of the wind.
39.Sirat = path. Correct Arab: Altareeq.
40.Syriac (liturgical language used in Eastern Christian churches - derived from Aramaic).
41.2/50 furqaan (original Hebrew?) - from pwrqn, Syriac = Salvation.
42.52/29 kaahin - from khn, Syriac = “priest” - meaning a pagan soothsayer or diviner (69/47).
43.3/45 mashiih = “the Christ”.
44.57/12 muhaymin - from mhymn’, Syriac = “the faithful”.
45.21/87 nuun - (title used for Jonah (Yunus)), from nwn, Syriac =“fish”.
46.2/85 qiaama - from qymt, Syriac = “resurrection“. (also 2/113, numerous times).
47.5/85 qissiis - from qshysh, Syriac = “Christian priest”.
48.4/85 Qur’an - from qyrn, Syriac = “scriptural lesson” or “reading”. (also MANY other places).
49.3/73 rabbinic - from rbn, Syriac = “perceptor, doctor.” (also 5/48, 5/68).
50.16/102 ruuh al-qudus, from rwh.qwdsh’, Syriac = “Holy Spirit”.
51.20/80 tuur - from t.wr’, Syriac = “mountain”.
There also are Syriac words like; taboot, tag hoot, zakat, malakout.

POST SCRIPTUM FOR CHAPTER II/3:
There are more as said above - and also from other countries. Al Suyuti himself lists 107 foreign words in the Quran. An expert like
Arthur Jeffery says some 275 words.

It must be a let down that even the word “Qur’an” is not an Arab word, but from Syriac.

A clear conclusion: A clear and pure Arab language in the book cannot be used as a proof for that Allah sent down the Quran (– this
in spite of that some Muslims tell that Arab is the language that is used in Heaven). On the contrary: The mistakes may indicate the
opposite.
Part I: Introduction of some Topics
Chapter 1: Some introductions
Chapter 2: Approximate age of the different surahs + cross references
Chapter 3: Some serious questions and comments
Chapter 4: To my murderer
Chapter 5: Introduction
Chapter 6: Preface
Chapter 7: A few words about Muhammad (more in Part XI)
Chapter 8: A few words about Allah
Chapter 9: The making and translation of the Quran (NB: Read this!)
Chapter 10: Short about Hadith (the 2. religious base for Muslims)
Chapter 11: Some essential information from and about texts in the Quran
Chapter 12: A serious PS. (NB: Do read this! Serious!)
Chapter 13: Tries to refute and discredit www.1000mistakes.com by muslims and islam
Chapter 14: Sources for this book:

Part II: The Mistakes in the Quran
Chapter 1: The 1000+ mistakes, mistaken facts – in the Quran
A. Some essentials for understanding the Quran
B. The mega mistakes in the Quran (NB: Read this!)  
a. The (mistaken) Earth as described in the Quran
b. The (mistaken) Universe as described in the Quran
c. Man and animals – (mistaken) creation, life on Earth, and resurrection
d. The 4 Mega Mistakes that had killed Islam – if intelligence had counted
C. Mistakes in the Quran – 400+ different mistaken facts arranged by themes. (also excellent for printing). (nb: read this!)  
a. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about Allah
b. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about the Quran
c. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about Muhammad
d. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about “signs”, “proofs”, etc
e. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about non-Muslims
f. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about Jesus
g. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about the Bible
h. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about God/Yahweh
i. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about Destiny
j. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about the visible Sky/Heaven
k. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about the Earth
l. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about man and living things on Earth
m. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about history and pre-history
n. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about the End
o. Mistakes in the Quran that are shown to come from Fairy Tales, etc
p. Some clear mistakes in the Quran about different topics
D. Mistakes and errors – mistaken facts – in the Quran. A "complete" list of 1700+ unmistakable mistakes. (an excellent overview and a starting point for further studies)  Surah 1 - 5
Surah 6 - 10 Surah 11 - 20 Surah 21 - 30 Surah 31 - 40 Surah 41 - 60 Surah 61 - 80 Surah 81 - 114 Some inevitable conclusions from chapter II. (NB: Do read this!)

Chapter 2: Grammatical mistakes in the Quran (in spite of perfection = proof of Allah)
Chapter 3: Non-Arab words in the Quran (in spite of being "pure" Arab)
Chapter 4: Animism etc. in the Quran (typical for primitive pagan religions)
Chapter 5: Muhammad in the Bible according to the Quran? (NB: Read this!)
Chapter 6: Is Allah the same god as Yahweh (God)?
Chapter 7: Is Allah a better – more benevolent, etc. – god than Yahweh (God)?
Chapter 8: 350+ contradictions in the Quran – in spite of being perfect = proof for Allah and for the Quran being made by a god. (NB: Read this!)
A. Internal contradictions in the Quran (250+) B. External contradictions in the Quran with facts and reality (ca.100).
Chapter 9: 134 abrogations in the Quran. Allah tries and fails? Or changes his mind?

Part III: The Quran and the Bible
Chapter 1: Falsified Bible according to the Quran? (Wrong. NB! Read this!)
Chapter 2: Contradictions compared to the Bible – too much.
Chapter 3: Islam demands for proofs from other religions (but never proves anything).
Chapter 4: The Quran about of Jesus.

(There are 13 parts total, all online at      1000mistakes.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ENTIRE BOOK
MISTAKES AND ERRORS IN THE QURAN,
THE HOLY BOOK OF MUHAMMAD, MUSLIMS, ISLAM,
AND ALLAH