HISTORY OF CHANGES IN WORSHIP
Adding to and Taking From Perfection

1st to 12th Centuries
FOR READERS WHO PREFER TO READ BY CATEGORY....  

(a)      All green  passages refer to objections made by "protestors" (protestants) to the changes in doctrine and methods                 
(this includes translations of the Bible into the local common language)

(b)       All blue passages refer to the INTRODUCTION or the formal ORDAINING
of a particular change in doctrine from the 1st century.

(c)       All red passages refer to persecutions for protesting.

(d)       All brown centered poetry are familiar hymns
written during time of persecution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
 
EXPLANATION

To understand how only small protestant movements gained power one nation at a time despite the Holy Roman Empire
(Catholic Church) Headquartered in Rome, it must be understood that, since the beginning of time, every nation had its own
special Guardian/Patron God.  The Egyptians did, the Babylonians did, the Hebrews did, and so on.  Anyone who did not honor
the government-selected god could be imprisoned, tortured and killed ~ legally.

Constantine was the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to accept the God of the Christians as his official God.  Thereafter,
the Roman church had no problems eliciting the empire's troops in carrying out its beliefs.

Eventually Luther convinced the ruler of Germany, who did not like the pope, to declare his version of the Christian God as the
official religion of Germany.  Calvin convinced the Swiss government to declare his reformed version of the Christian God as the
official religion of Switzerland.  John Knox convinced the Scottish government to declare his presbyterian version of the Christian
God as the official religion of Scotland.  As so it went: As various countries broke away from the political and religious power of
Rome, they declared yet a different version of the Christian God to be their official religion.

Despite this, there has always been a group somewhere organizing and worshipping the way the first-century church organized
and worshipped.  Though they tried to stay out of sight of their government, they were nearly always persecuted.  But God
watched out for his own, and is church never died.
                                                    First Century  

    During the first century, the gospel was proclaimed by the Twelve Apostles and close associates everywhere:  Philip in Phyrigia, Turkey;
Matthew in Parthia, the near Orient, and Ethiopia in Africa; Andrew in Turkey and Russia; Mark in Egypt; Jude in Edessa, Parthia;
Bartholomew in India; Thomas in Parthia and India; Luke in Greece; Simon in Africa and Britain; others in Spain.  [1]  (Take special note of
Simon the Zealot in Britain.)  

    The first change in the church the way Jesus' own apostles set it up occurred with the leadership.  It probably is the greatest problem the
church has had from the beginning until now.  It was usually not the average member who caused the problems.  Paul had warned that it
would be among the leadership the first apostasy would occur (Acts 20:17, 28-30) and he was right.   

    It appeared late in the century.  John in Revelation, written about 95 AD, condemned the Nicholaitins.  Nicholas means conqueror or
ruler, and laity means the common person.  The Nicholaitins were developing a clergy-laity system within the church.  Jesus was already
threatening to take the lampstand of those congregations away (Revelation 1-3).   

    Every church history written by every denomination recognizes that in the New Testament days, elders, presbyters and bishops were all
the same office.  They were called by different names in the same way that preacher and evangelist is the same office.  In III John 9, this
apostle warned about someone who was trying to be the exclusive head of a particular congregation saying that he "loved to have the
preeminence among them."  

                                                                     INTRODUCED ONE BISHOP BEING OVER  
                                                             OTHER ELDERS/PRESBYTERS OF A CONGREGATION  
                                                                                   NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED


                                           2nd Century

    By now, Christianity had also spread further to the region of Mount Ararat in today's Turkey and Russia, and also to France, particularly
around Lyons.  

    About AD 110, Ignatius resurrected the teaching that there was one bishop over the elders of the church, although bishop and elder were
the same office in I Timothy and Titus, just like congressman and senator is the same office.   

    Soon after, Ignatius said there should be a bishop over each city, not just his own congregation.  In his Epistle to the Ephesians, 11, he
said the bishop was in charge of the Lord's Supper, or he could allow an elder to do it.  This was not accepted in Rome, even in AD 140.  It
took a hundred years for this system to be universally accepted.  

    It is interesting that the Apostle John wrote II and III John and Revelation around 95.  Yet in his short letters he identified himself only as
"the elder."  In Revelation 1:9 he identified himself as merely "brother."  Since he was believed to be in Ephesus during his latter years, why
did he not call himself the bishop of Ephesus?

                                                          INTRODUCED ONE BISHOP PRESIDING OVER ENTIRE  
                                                                         CHURCH OR METROPOLITAN AREA  
                                                                                   NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED

    About AD 150, the first creed was developed.  It was a single sentence which expanded on Jesus' statement that people should be
baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19).  But about 200 it was expanded to include affirmations of
Jesus' virgin birth and resurrection from the dead.  

    The creed was developed because of a second-century group of Christians called Arians who believed that, since Jesus was the created
Son of God, he was a lesser God than Jehovah his Father.  These people were mostly from northern Africa, especially Egypt and Lybia.  

    Because differences of opinion began to arise and the Apostles were now dead, various people began creating lists of writings (which we
today call the New Testament) which were known to be authored by the apostles personally.  These individual writings, though actually
letters, we today call books.  

    A generation after the last apostle died, Marcion from northern Turkey compiled a list of 15 apostolic books.  Twenty years later another
list was compiled that included 23 apostolic books.  About 250 Origen in Egypt compiled a list of 21 books which all churches he had
interviewed had accepted, and another list of some they weren't sure about.  In 397 a list of 27 book was compiled at a council in Carthage,
North Africa - the same 27 we today call the New Testament.  

    180 is the first mention of baptizing babies.  It was not widely accepted by the churches, though a few began to practice it.

                                                                         INTRODUCED INFANT BAPTISM  
                                                                                NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED

    In 187, Victor, the Bishop of Rome, wanted to make that city - the center of the Roman Empire ~ the central place for celebrating
Easter.  Irenaeus wrote in the name of the Gallic churches chastising him for his arrogance.


                                          3rd Century

     Although evangelized by the Apostle Simon the Zealot in the first century, this century saw the spread of Roman Christianity to Great
Britain whose king was converted by Amphibalus.  

    The Bishop of Rome put more pressure on other bishops to fall in line under him because, since Rome was the head of the Roman
Empire, Rome should also be head of the church.  He continued to meet with a great deal of resistance.   

    Most often the Bishop of Carthage in North Africa stood as spokesman for the others to maintain independence of each other.  And it
was to the Bishop of Carthage that many other bishops of other areas appealed to be a spokesman for them in resisting Rome's arrogance.  
    In 218, Calixtis I, Bishop of Rome, claimed he was Peter's successor.  Tertullian, Bishop of Carthage in North Africa and noted Christian
writer, called him a usurper in speaking as if he were bishop of bishops.  

    John Fox who wrote his
Book of Martyrs said in chapter 2, "It was unfortunate for the Gospel, that many errors had, about this time,
crept into the Church: the Christians were at variance with each other; self-interest divided those whom social love ought to have united; and
the virulence of pride occasioned a variety of factions."  [2]

    Later he wrote of this same period, "Most of the errors which crept into the Church at this time arose from placing human reason in
competition with revelation; but the fallacy of such arguments being proved by the most able divines, the opinions they had created vanished
away like the stars before the sun"  [3]

    In 250 when Novatian was voted in as the new Bishop of Rome, many would not accept him, including the powerful Bishop of Carthage,
Cyprian.  So Novatian tried to get him out of office to put in a new Bishop of Carthage, even though all church offices were considered for
life except for voluntary resignations.  

    Also at this time, substitutes for the form of baptism were introduced, as well as what happened after baptism.  The Bishop of Carthage
said that people wishing to be baptized where there was insufficient water could, rather than be immersed, have abundant water poured over
them three times.  Related to that, he also said that a person who was too sick or weak could be baptized by pouring or sprinkling rather
than immersion.  

                                                     INTRODUCED POURING OR SPRINKLING BAPTISM  
                                                                    FOR THE SICK AND WEAK ONLY  
                                                                            NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    Soon after, people began calling the bishop father, which in the Latin of Rome sounded like papa, and in the Armenian language of
Constantinople sounded like patriarch.  

                                           INTRODUCED BISHOPS BEING CALLED PAPA/POPE/PATRIARCH  
                                                                            NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    Further, it was decided the Holy Spirit was not received in baptism, but rather afterwards by the apostles laying on their hands.  Since
there were no more apostles, but they decided the bishops were their successors, it was expected of bishops to lay their hands on people
after baptism to deliver the Holy Spirit.  This is what they termed "confirmation."  

                                                     INTRODUCED GIFT OF HOLY SPIRIT CONFERRED  
                                                         BY LAYING ON OF HANDS ("CONFIRMATION")  
                                                                            NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    Also, with so much pre-eminence, all the bishops over each territory began to be called Papa or Patriarch or Pope, whichever fit their
language.
  

                                                     
        INTRODUCED CALLING ALL BISHOPS POPE  
                                                                            NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    During this time, a few began saying that the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper was actually the body and blood of Jesus.  Because of
that, people began bowing to the bread and wine as though bowing to Jesus.  

                                                      INTRODUCED BREAD & WINE ACTUALLY JESUS  
                                                                          NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED

    In the mean time in Paris, France, a man named Almericus and six of his disciples were ordered burned at the stake for asserting that
Jesus was not present in the sacramental bread of the Lord's Supper, that it was idolatry to build altars and shrines to saints and to offer
incense to them.  

    The church leadership feud was interrupted in 257 AD when the pagan emperor in Rome, Valerian, made Christian meetings illegal, the
first edict of its kind in Rome.  After an interlude of peace, under Roman law about 305 AD, copies of scriptures were ordered destroyed
and the few church buildings there were, were confiscated by the government.  


                                         4th Century

    Around 300, the bishops decided the church universal should be run like the Roman Empire which had an emperor, then a senate, then
representatives.  Therefore, they began what was to be known as the college of cardinals, which was the church's "senate."  

                                                  INTRODUCED CHURCH ORGANIZATION TO FOLLOW  
                                                             POLITICAL SYSTEM OF ROMAN EMPIRE  

    Also they made it official that the bishop would be in charge of priests and deacons in various congregations in the surrounding territory
around the "mother city."  

                           ORDAINED BISHOP IN CHARGE OF ALL CONGREGATIONS OF A TERRITORY  

    The following year, Constantine, whose mother was a Christian, was made co-emperor, then emperor of the Roman Empire.  Around
304, the gospel was taken to Hungary, then called Pannonia, through Quirinus who had been sent there to be martyred.  

    In 313 a dispute arose between bishops in North Africa over Arianism (the degree of Jesus' divinity), so Constantine called a meeting of
the church there in Rome where he had settled.  At this time the term "Roman Catholic" started being used, referring to the universal belief of
all Christians in the Roman Empire, not the city of Rome, that Jesus was fully God.  

    A few years later, Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Istanbul on the border between Italy and Turkey, and renamed
the city after himself - Constantinople.  At that time, he gave the Bishop of Rome, Silvester I, all of southern Italy to rule over as its
governor.  Thus began the union of church and state.  He presented the Lateran Palace that his wife had inherited to the Bishop of Rome.  
He also gave the Bishop of Rome "all provinces, palaces, and districts of the City of Rome and Italy and of the regions of the West."  And
he donated a lot of money around the empire for building church buildings.   

    Now the capital of the Roman Empire was not longer Rome in Italy, but Constantinople in Turkey.          

    In 318, Arius began preaching that the world was created by an evil god, and only spirit was created by the good God.  They also said
that, since Jesus was created and in the flesh, he was a lessor God to Jehovah.  Other variations of the divine and human nature of Christ
continued until about the 8th century.  Also confusing was the relationship of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Spirit and the
degree of their separateness since God is supposed to be one.  

    In response to this, Constantine called a Council meeting in the city of Nicea, Turkey, where they attending bishops formed the Nicean
Creed, an expanded version of Matthew 28:19 where Jesus said people were to be baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the
Holy Spirit.  (In 281 they expanded it once more to emphasize the divinity of the Holy Spirit.)  People then had to declare their belief in the
creed before being baptized.  

                                                              INTRODUCED THE FIRST CHURCH CREED  

    For the rest of the 4th century, it became politically expedient to convert to Christianity because the emperor had.  Christians grew then
from 10% of the Roman Empire to 90%.  Growth was almost too fast to handle.  Therefore, bishops of whatever city was the "mother city"
(the capital) of each province, became guides to the other bishops of the smaller cities of their province, and they began to be called
archbishops.  

    Soon, four "mother cities" were recognized as the most significant Christian centers in the eastern empire, the most honored being
Jerusalem.  Two others were Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in Syria, both of which also had connections from the beginning with the
apostles.  Constantinople, Turkey, the new capital of the Roman Empire, was the fourth "mother city" of the church, but for political
reasons.    
    This escalated the battle between the archbishops/archpopes to see who was most powerful.  The two "mother cities" with the most
opinionated archbishops were in Rome in Italy and Carthage in northern Africa.  But since Carthage had no connection with the apostles,
Rome soon won the distinction as "mother city" of the entire western empire.

    GOTHIC TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE:  In 380, Ulifas created the Gothic alphabet.  Then he translated the Bible from the
Septuagint Greek O.T. and the Greek N.T.  Goth is the earliest known Germanic language, and the only east Germanic language.  This laid
the basis for centuries to come for restoration movements among people who wanted to revert to the simple first-century pattern of the
church as opposed to the controlling centralized-government type of church now appearing.  

    Late in that century, a second Council of Bishops was called to Constantinople.  At that time, they declared that the Bishop of
Constantinople (the new capitol of the Roman Empire) was to be second in importance in the church only to the Bishop of Rome (the
original capitol of the Roman Empire).   

    Also in 393 it was decided that all bishops and archbishops had to be unmarried.  However, it was limited only to bishops, not to priests
or deacons.  

                                                                INTRODUCED CELIBACY OF BISHOPS  
                                                                           NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

                                                  5th Century

   In the previous century when torture and unendurable executions of Christians by the pagans ceased, those who had wanted to prove
their dedication to God turned to other means of self-destruction.  At that time a few in North Africa became self-deprecating hermits with
no valuables and no families.  This monastery movement gradually spread to others in the Roman Empire, often with several hermits living in
the same area but not talking to each other.  This was the beginning of monks.  

    In 418, some bishops began to baptize infants, declaring they were born in sin.  

                                                                   
 REINTRODUCED INFANT BAPTISM  
                                                                        STILL NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

ARMENIAN TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE:  As a result of developing an Armenian (NE Turkish) alphabet, in 422, the New
Testament and Proverbs were translated in Armenian.  Because they could read the Bible for themselves, this eventually led to them not
agreeing with the Roman church on many things for centuries to come.  

    In 431 at another Council, the bishops and archbishops officially declared that Mary was and still is the Mother of God.  

                                                                
    INTRODUCED MARY VENERATION  
                                                                             NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    During the 5th century, the Roman Empire could no longer defend Britain and northern areas (today's western Europe) from invading
Germans, so deserted them.  Christians there were left isolated from the rest of the church.   

    By now the church had spread to Scotland and Ireland, probably as a result of missionary work done by the students of the Apostle
Simon in Britain.  It is said that Patrick, a Scotsman, established some 250 congregations in Ireland before his death in 493.   

    In 430, Ninian who had been educated in Rome tried to set up congregations, of course with Roman church beliefs, but met with
resistance.  Both the Irish and Scottish churches were distinct from the Roman church in many things until they coerced them to live a
Catholic or face severe persecutions, tortures and deaths.  

    The practice of book copying (no printing presses yet) was added to the activities of monks in western Europe.  This helped with
maintaining the Latin translation of the Bible, though it was only available to the clergy.  

    The Goths, who had never actually been a part of the Roman Empire and who had the Bible translated into their own language, were
forced out of their land around the Black Sea by the oriental Huns.  Taking their Bible with them, they moved to southern Europe and were
the first to sack Rome in 790 years.  

    As a result of conquering Rome, Augustine in northern Africa wrote his famous CITY OF GOD wherein he tried to build up the
wounded egos of the Rome's citizens, saying that Rome, as head of the Roman Empire, is the City of Earth.  Therefore Rome, if head of the
Church, should also be called the City of God.  

    The displaced Goths moved on into western Europe and finally settled in Gaul, today's France, taking their Bible and first-century
Christian views with them.  They also invaded and settled in what today is Spain and Switzerland, also taking their Bible with them.  

    Such spread of the Scriptures in the hands of the people was beginning to alarm the Roman and Constantinople church.  Therefore,
another Council was called, and in 451 it decreed that no one was allowed to read the Bible for themselves and interpret for themselves.  
They must accept the interpretation of the church only or they would be excommunicated.  

                                       
  INTRODUCED BAN ON PRIVATELY INTERPRETING SCRIPTURES  

    Also, gradually during this century, the clergy began distinguishing their offices from the common Christians by wearing distinctive
vestments.  

                                              
   INTRODUCED CLERGY WEARING HOLY VESTMENTS  
                                                                         NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    One other group of Goths moved into modern Netherlands that had closer ties to the Roman church.  


                                               6th Century

    During the next century, the collapsing Roman Empire was ruled primarily by invading eastern Europeans.  Gradually the people of the
eastern empire around Constantinople called themselves Byzantine citizens instead of Roman citizens.  Each appointed their own bishops
who would back their own political power.  In 553, the Bishop of Constantinople went against the Bishop of Rome, Justinian, and
condemned certain recent actions.  

    In 573, a rich Italian, Gregory I, was made the mayor of Rome and later Bishop of Rome and called "Gregory the Great."
By this time, people all over the Roman Empire had bequeathed farms, vineyards, timber tracks, orchards and so on to the church, but no
one had ever done much with them.  Subtly he began building his church empire.  

    With his previous experience as mayor of Rome, Gregory developed all this property to finance the church.  When potential invaders
approached some of these lands, Gregory took it upon himself to defend the Christians in these areas, thus winning their allegiance.  
Gradually, he arranged for local church officials to fill in for political officials who had abused the local people.  

    Then Gregory began writing the archbishops in Spain, northern Africa, and Greece offering advice and being a friend, and subtly
advancing the claim of Rome to supremacy.  By this time, Gregory had decided the Bishop of Rome was responsible for all "orthodox"
churches, and that all bishops must answer to Rome because this was the seat of the Roman Empire.  

    When the Bishop of Constantinople announced he was the "Patriarch" of the church, the Bishop of Rome and Gregory both complained
it sounded like Constantinople considered itself the most important bishopric in the entire church.  However, Rome liked the term Patriarch,
and eventually called itself the Patriarch/Pope of the church.   

                                                                     INTRODUCED OFFICE OF POPE  

    During this time of rising power, Gregory handed over more power to the priests to keep their allegiance by declaring to the people that
they must confess their sins in private only to a priest.  

    He also fed the people with a new symbol of belonging.  They were now to make the sign of a cross, either on their forehead or their
chest, depending on the occasion.  

                                                             INTRODUCED CONFESSION TO PRIEST  

                                                                     INTRODUCED SIGN OF CROSS  
                                                                           NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    There was also a growing veneration of Mary and martyrs which were also called saints.  Further, they were more and more represented
in images.  Church leaders assured the people that the images were just to be reminders, not deities, but many people did not make this
distinction.

    The Bishop of Syria objected to all the bowing down to paintings and statues of Christ, the virgin Mary, apostles and various saints.  For
the simple people, these representations had become a sort of magic talisman.  People bowed before them, burned candles before them,
crowned them with flowers, sought miracles from them, and worshipped them.  

    Late in this century, Boniface of England took the gospel to Germany.


                                                    7th Century

    In 600 another "Ecumenical Council" was held and it was declared that all edicts of the church carried the same weight as the Four
Gospels of the Bible.   

                                            ORDAINED CHURCH RULES AS AUTHORITATIVE AS GOSPELS  

    One of their edicts at this time was to define exactly what was to be said at the Mass (Lord's Supper), including reciting the Lord's
Prayer.  

                                                                       ORDAINED MASS DIALOGUE  

    In the mean time, gradually the kings of the various countries in western Europe that Gregory had helped, submitted themselves to the
church in Rome except the Christians in the British Isles.  

    The church in Britain had been founded personally by the Apostle Simon (the Zealot) ~ see endnote one again.  They had stayed true to
his teachings all this time.  So when the Roman church arrived, they refused to submit to celibacy of the clergy, confession to priests,
purgatory.

   At the beginning of the 7th Century, Gregory sent missionaries to the British Isles to represent him.  The Christians in the British Isles did
not take kindly to Gregory's presumptuousness.  However, gradually the Christians in England agreed to follow the direction of the church in
Rome.  

    Back in earlier centuries, the Franks (former Germans) in the Netherlands, helped Rome to fight off the Huns from the Orient, and later
the Muslims from the Middle East.  So, although the kings declared allegiance to Rome, they were so lazy that the Franks were able to move
in and run the countries for them.  So by the middle of the 7th century there was once again a division as to whether to submit to the Roman
church or not.  

    In the late 7th century, the Franks began sending out missionaries to convert the pagans in western Europe.  Boniface of England was
their most influential missionary.  He traveled into Germany and parts of central Europe, and finally France.  He was so effective that Rome
claimed him as an ally and representative also.  As he did, the Franks claimed much of the land previously donated to the church to be now
under their control.   

    Also during this time down in Italy, the Lombards were trying to unite and take over the now-splintered country.  Pope Gregory III was
unwilling to cooperate so asked the Byzantines in Constantinople to help.  They wouldn't because they did not want to give up the power
they already had in Italy.  He also asked the Franks for help, and they, too declined.   

    The next generation of Franks decided they did not want to be rulers just in act, but also in name.  They appealed to the patriarch of
Rome, the pope, for endorsement and got it.  The first Frankish king ~ Pepin ~ was crowned and anointed in a religious ceremony.   

    At that same time the Lombards took over land in Italy, claiming Rome also.  Pope Stephen went to France for help which he obtained
from Pepin.  They became allies when the pope recrowned King Pepin himself.  

    When that king died, his son succeeded him - Charles the Great, also known as Charlemagne.  He helped the pope regain control of Italy
and gave back much of the church land to Rome.  When the Lombards tried one last time to take over Rome, King Charles/Charlemagne
came down and got rid of the Lombards and made himself king of Italy, but left control of Rome to the pope.  

    Charlemagne also sent missionaries into the British Isles (Saxony) which they resisted.  For resisting him, he finally had 4500 Saxon
warriors beheaded in one day.  

    In 666, Pope St. Vitalian introduced the use of the organ in worship in Rome to improve on congregational singing.  A second organ was
placed in France in 757, and a third one also in France in 812.  About that same time, a fourth one was placed in Germany.  

                                                                 INTRODUCED INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC  
                                                                             NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    In 692, the church in Rome officially declared that priests who were promoted to bishop had to leave their wives to become celibate, but
their wives could become deaconesses and live elsewhere.  

                                          ORDAINED FORMER WIVES OF BISHOPS MADE DEACONESSES


                                                    8th Century

  OLD ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE:  In Great Britain, Caedmon, referring to the Latin translation of the Bible,
paraphrased the Bible in poetry form in the common language of the people.  Also near this time, Bede made an actual translation of the
Bible based on the Latin translation.  

    In the year 700, the western church in Rome declared that Mary was the mediator between man and her Son, Jesus.  This view was
adopted thirty years later by the eastern church in Constantinople.  

                                       ORDAINED MARY IS THE MEDIATOR BETWEEN MAN AND JESUS  

    Also in this century, it was decreed that only the Bishop of Rome was to be called Pope.  This, of course, made the powerful Bishop of
Constantinople in Turkey angry.  The rift between them grew.  

                                                          ORDAINED PAPACY EXCLUSIVELY IN ROME  

    In the mean time, Leo III became Emperor of the Roman Empire in Constantinople in 717.  He successfully drove the Muslims back out
of Europe, though they had succeeded in taking the Middle East.  

    However, the Muslims continually accused the Christians of idol worship, referring to paintings and carvings of Christ and the saints.  In
726 Leo III called a council of bishops and senators demanding their complete removal from church buildings, and church murals be
covered with plaster.  

    Horrified worshippers attacked soldiers trying to enforce the edict.  The Patriarch of Constantinople did not want the pictures and
carvings removed either, so Emperor Leo deposed him.  At the same time, Pope Gregory II in Rome anathematized (cursed) Leo.  Those
who refused the use of pictures and carvings were accused of denying the incarnation of Jesus as a human.   

    In 757, having lost control of Italy in earlier centuries, King Pepin and his son, Charlemagne, gave control of Italy back to the pope.

    In 767 the next Patriarch of Constantinople was beheaded for favoring the pictures and carvings.  Monasteries were confiscated by the
government and resisting monks were imprisoned and tortured, eyes or tongues torn out, and noses cut off.  At Ephesis the governor
ordered monks and nuns to marry each other or be killed.

    But in 787 the edict was reversed at Nicea and the veneration - though not the worship - of pictures and carvings was restored.  They
officially approved bowing down to statues of saints, holy men, the cross, Jesus, Mary, and angels.    

                                                                   ORDAINED BOWING TO IMAGES

    Still, the rift between the eastern church in Constantinople and the western church in Rome grew.            

    Some time later, a new pope was elected in Rome - Leo III.  But he was so corrupt that he was beaten on a deserted road and
imprisoned in a monastery.  His friends helped him escape and he went to Britain to confer get Charlemagne to side with him.  Charlemagne
went with him back to Rome for a trial where the evidence against him was overwhelming.  But Charlemagne said if Leo swore he was
innocent, then he would be.   

     A few days later while Charlemagne was kneeling in prayer at the front of the church, Pope Leo surprised him by taking a crown that
was on the altar, placing it on Charlemagne's head and announcing he had been crowned by God.  This was the beginning of the "Holy
Roman Empire" although not called by this name until 300 years later.  

     Charlemagne was a little upset by this but did not turn it down.  But when he gave up his kingship to his son, Louis, he had his son crown
himself.  This brought up the question as to whether the pope makes the emperor or the emperor makes the pope.  

    Yet Charlemagne always remained supportive of the Roman church.  He used political authority to suppress heresy, to collect tithes of
the people, guarantee discipline of the clergy, developed a distinctive dress for the clergy, and made sure all churches followed the Roman
"liturgy" in all their services.  He also developed cathedral schools to train the clergy, imported scholars to teach in monasteries, and had
cantors trained to sing Gregorian chants in the church.  

    After his death, his son, Louis was recrowned by the visiting pope.  This gesture was made to infer it was the church in Rome who had
made him king.  After this, the pope showed up at other coronations of other kings in Europe and crowned them too.  Thus grew the idea
that the crown has been conferred by the papacy.  

    King Louis divided his empire among his three sons to rule.  But when a fourth son was born and he tried to redivide the kingdom, his
three sons rose up against him.  Pope Gregory IV sided with the sons and King Louis ended up powerless.  By the end of the 9th century,
Charlemagne's empire had been divided into Germany, France, and the Netherlands running south into Italy.

   The Frankish bishops felt the pope had no right to interfere with politics.  The pope quoted Matthew 16:19 where Jesus gave the keys of
the kingdom to Peter, and the bishops retorted with Matthew 18:18 where he gave the keys to all the apostles.  Thus began a dispute and
popular resistance that would build up eventually to the Reformation 600 years later.  

    Besides fighting between politicians and between churchmen, there was fighting between politicians and churchmen.  So in Le Mans,
France, in 857, some clerics got together and produced a series of documents, some of which were fabricated and forged that they claimed
came out of Seville 200 years earlier and proved the papacy approved.  

    These Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals were made up of documents, letters and decrees of bishops and councils of the 2nd and 3rd centuries
exalting the power of the pope.  These forged papers were used to prove papal supremacy over all bishops with no interference by the laity
or politicians.  By the time these papers were recognized as forgeries centuries later, they had already done their damage.


                                                9th Century

     During this century, Radbertus and other church leaders began writing and teaching at length that the bread and wine of the Lord's
Supper became the actual body and blood of Jesus.  But they still met with a great deal of resistance.  

    GERMAN TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE:  This translation was made from the Vulgate, translator unknown.  

    SLAVONIC TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE:  Cyril and Methodius, missionaries from Constantinople to Moravia, invented a Slavic
alphabet which was later called the Cyrillic alphabet.  They translated the Bible from the Greek Septuagint O.T. and the Greek N.T. into the
language of the people.  It was called the "Old Church Slavonic Bible."  

    In 850, it was decided people should sprinkle themselves or be sprinkled by a priest every Sunday as they entered their place of
worship.  The water must be blessed by the priest and turned into holy water.  

                                                                  ORDAINED WEEKLY HOLY WATER  

    Also about this time, the church bishops decided that people receiving the Lord's Supper had to make a sign of the cross before
partaking.  They also decided the bread of the Lord's Supper had to be placed directly on the tongues of the congregation, and only by a
bishop.   

                                                         ORDAINED SIGN OF CROSS AT LORD'S SUPPER  

                                 ORDAINED BISHOP MUST PLACE BREAD ON CONGREGATION'S TONGUES  

    Also by this time, the number of holy vestments worn by the clergy had increased to seven specific parts of garments.  More and more
these vestments gained ornateness during the following centuries.  

                                                         ORDAINED CLERGY WEAR HOLY VESTMENTS  

    King Boris of Bulgaria was converted to Christianity in 865.  He did not know whether to side with the Patriarch of Constantinople or the
Pope of Rome.  The Patriarch said services could be held in the Slavonic language, so King Boris sided with Constantinople.  This widened
the rift between Constantinople and Rome.  

    In 869, the Pope of Rome excommunicated the Patriarch of Constantinople, who in turn excommunicated the former.  This was the last
time the churches of the east represented in Constantinople ever met in official Council with the churches of the west represented in Rome.  
Up until now, all such councils had been held in or near Constantinople and in the Greek language.  

    During this century in Rome, strong popes and weak popes emerged.  Pope John VIII was poisoned and then bludgeoned to death in his
bed in 882.  Pope Marinus I was assassinated.  Next came Pope Stephen VII.  

    In 897 with the blessing of Pope Stephen, the body of an earlier pope, Formosus, was exhumed, clothed in papal robes and put on trial
for heresy.  His three fingers used to bestow the papal blessing were cut off, his papal robes stripped off, and his corpse dragged through
Rome and cast into the Tiber River.  Later that year Pope Stephen was strangled.  


                                                 10th Century

   The next pope lasted only four months, and the next only 20 days.  Pope Leo V was elected in 903 but killed two months later.  His
assassin then made himself pope - something that official Roman Catholic lists do not recognize.  

    The assassin was killed by Sergius III who then became pope.  Sergius took a 13-year-old mistress, Marozia, daughter of the political
leader of Rome.  She bore Pope Sergius a son.  After his death, the matron of the political family, Theodora, appointed the next three
popes.  The eyes of John X were put out by the next political head of Rome, he was imprisoned and died there a year later.  

    In 927 the pope's widow Marozia took over the city of Rome and appointed the next three popes, the third one being John XI, the
illegitimate son of herself and Pope Sergius.  Marozia's first legitimate son conquered his mother and threw Pope John XI into prison.  Just
prior to his death, he forced the Roman Senate to make his son Octavian the next pope; and he ruled under the name John XII.   

    Pope John XII had many mistresses and freely used church contributions to finance personal enjoyments.  He was even known to have
raped some of the female pilgrims at St. Peter's.  He was so immoral that at this point, the church decided that the infallibility of the pope did
not involve his personal life, but only his official church pronouncements.  

    In 973, the Roman church canonized the first saint, a practice that continues even today.  

                                                     ORDAINED CANONIZATION OF THE FIRST SAINT

    In 977, the Bohemians requested that Pope Benedict VII allow them to have services in their own language, and that the cup of the
Lord's Supper to given to the laity also.  The pope granted both.  But succeeding popes reneged on both.  

    OLD ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE:  In 995, Aelfric wrote so many homilies on the Old and New Testaments that he
ended up quoting most of it, and did translate all of the Hexateuch from Latin.

    Meanwhile, the title of Holy Roman Emperor moved from western Europe around France to eastern Europe around Germany.  Otto I
had too many in his family wanting his crown, so he turned to bishops and archbishops to help govern his kingdom.  To verify the power he
gave them, Otto gave large parcels of land to each.  As result, he also insisted on playing a major role in selecting the bishops.  

    This led to his interest in who was pope.  In 964, an irate husband beat Pope John XII so badly when he discovered him in bed with is
wife that the pope died three days later.  After this, Emperor Otto supervised appointments to the papacy.  Even Otto's grandson, Otto III,
appointed his cousin Bruno who changed his name to Pope Gregory V.  This was the first German pope.  When Gregory V was poisoned in
999, Otto installed his former French tutor Sylvester II as pope.   

    In 1002 Otto was poisoned and the following year Pope Sylvester II was poisoned.  The next emperor, Henry II, was not interested in
the papacy.  

    Late in this century, the Grand Duke of what we today call Russia was converted to Christianity.  He married the sister of the Byzantine
Emperor, then introduced the Eastern church to his country where it remains strong to this day.  Another rift with Rome.


                                         11th Century

    In 1000 in France, a man named Berengarius preached Gospel truths according to the primitive ways of the first century.  Later Peter
Bruis taught similarly, with followers separating from the Church of Rome.  He wrote a book against the pope entitled ANTICHRIST.  

     In 1010, Peter de Bruys and his followers called Petrobusians in France, rejected the Mass, held that the Lord's Supper was a
memorial, and that ministers should marry.  Simultaneously, a monk Henry was baptized and began preaching the same thing.  His followers
were called by outsiders Henricians.

 During these years of power plays by the various pope, many new decrees were put on the Christians by the bishops.  As of 1014, priests
had to chant the Nicean Decree at the Lord's Supper.  

                         ORDAINED CHANTING OF NICEAN CREED REQUIRED AT LORD'S SUPPER  (MASS)

    In 1018, the church decided to force all priests and deacons to be celibate.  If they insisted on being married, their children of the
marriage were made lifetime slaves of the church, never to be freed.  

                                                        ORDAINED PRIESTS & DEACONS NOT MARRY  

                                          ORDAINED CHILDREN OF PRIESTS TO BE SLAVES OF CHURCH  

    The next three popes were appointed by the Italian Crescenti family, and the following three by the Tusculum family.  The latter three
were brothers and a nephew.  Benedict VIII bought his office with open bribery.  Pope John XIX bought the papacy and, being a layman,
passed through all the clerical degrees in one day.  Benedict IX was 12 years old and eventually committed murders and adulteries in broad
daylight, and robbed pilgrims to Rome.   

    After three others were declared pope simultaneously with him, Benedict IX voluntarily resigned in 1045, but sold the papacy to his
Jewish god-father who became Gregory VI.  When the previous two popes wanted their papacy back, Emperor Henry III returned and
deposed them all, appointing another Germany pope.  

    In 1049, with some priests still marrying, the church decided that all their wives and concubines were to be made servants of the church.  

                                            ORDAINED PRIEST'S WIVES TO BE SERVANTS OF CHURCH  

    In the mid 11th century, when southern Italy was invaded by Viking Normans, Pope Leo IX personally led troops to push them back
out.  The Viking Normans won and imprisoned Pope Leo IX for nine months; he died a month later in Rome.  But by now King Philip of
France, King William II of England, and King Henry IV of Germany were all excommunicated.  

    Meanwhile, in 1053 in Constantinople, the Patriarch closed down all Latin monasteries and churches.  In the process of closing down
one of the churches, the soldiers walked on the bread used in the Lord's Supper.  According to Roman beliefs, they had walked on the
actual body of Christ.

   Then the Patriarch issued an open letter to the Pope, although addressed to the bishops and priests of France, objecting to Roman beliefs
such as fasting on Saturday, eating meat strangled with the blood still in it, and barring priests from marrying.    

    Thereupon Roman papal delegates put a written anathema (curse) on the Patriarch and all his followers.  These events are today called
the Great Schism.  Basically, the split between eastern and western church headquarters was complete and final and exists even today:  The
Western Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.  Only periodically when it benefited both sides, did the two unite.  

    Up until now, all popes had been appointed by whoever was the strongest king or family either in Rome or all of Europe.  In 1059, it was
decided that the Pope of Rome must be elected by the cardinals, this group being a copy of the Roman senate who used to elect the
emperor.  

                                                             ORDAINED CARDINALS MUST ELECT POPE

     In 1075 a decree was renewed condemning priest marriages, fornication, and purchasing church office.  This was an indirect blow to
monarchs appointing their own bishops.   

    King Henry IV refused to conform, so the church began excommunicating his bishops.  Therefore Pope Gregory excommunicated King
Henry IV and told him he was no longer king.  Thereupon, King Henry marched to Rome and captured the pope.  He was rescued two
years later but died in exile a year after that.  

    In 1066, the Viking Normans invaded England.  At first the English ruler appointed his own bishops as the others had, but a compromise
was finally reached wherein the pope's representative crowned the king and the king's representative granted the bishop with land.  This
trend then moved east across Europe to Germany.  

    
WEST SAXON TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE:  Around this same time, the Four Gospels were translated from Latin into the
language of West Saxony which today is the western part of Germany and the Netherlands.  

    In 1079, the church officially declared that the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper are substantially changed into the body and blood of
Jesus (Trans-substantiation), and therefore worshippers had to bow down to these emblems as though bowing before Jesus in person.  

                                                 ORDAINED BREAD & WINE ACTUALLY BECOME JESUS  

                                                             ORDAINED BOWING TO BREAD & WINE  

    Also about this time, it was decided to have both candles and incense in the Mass (Lord's Supper).  

                                                                 INTRODUCED CANDLES IN WORSHIP  
                                                                           NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

                                                                  INTRODUCED INCENSE IN WORSHIP  
                                                                           NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    By 1095, the Moslems had conquered the entire Middle East and killed Christian pilgrims who dared go to their Holy Land.  They also
took much of Turkey where Constantinople was.  (The Apostle Paul, by the way, established most of the first-century congregations in
Turkey.)  The patriarch sent for help from the pope.   

    Pope Urban II promised all who would volunteer for a crusade against the Moslems that they would receive remission of the guilt of all
sins and be tax exempt.  He even allowed prisoners to be released so they could join.   

    This was the beginning of indulgences.  Later indulgences were allowed for just equipping someone to go on a crusade.  An indulgence is
not forgiveness of sins, but a way of paying the penalty for sins by paying money, serving in the church military, or anything assigned by the
pope, rather than having to pay for it in purgatory or hell.  

                                                            ORDAINED PAYMENT OF INDULGENCES  

    In this first Crusade, peasant troops, loosely organized by two monks, did not wait for the professional military but headed across Europe
toward the Holy Land.  Without proper preparation, they ended up pillaging village after village for food and money, and often raped the
women while they were at it.  When they arrived in eastern Turkey to take it back from the Moslems, they were annihilated.  

    A more organized group of 30,000 dukes, mostly from France, took their troops as far as Tarsus.  There someone claimed to have
discovered the spear that had pierced Jesus' side.  This inspired the troops so much that they conquered the Moslems in that area.  

    During this century, the church at Rome declared that the laity should not drink the wine of the Lord's Supper.  They could only have the
bread.  

                                        ORDAINED LAITY CANNOT DRINK OF LORD'S SUPPER (MASS)


                           12th Century

   In 1118 the Knights Templar were founded in Jerusalem, a military order associated with the pope to protect pilgrims from the Moslems.  
After the crusades, they returned to Europe, mostly France.  

    After 150 years in France, those wanting primitive Christianity as described only in the Bible began to be led by Henry of Toulouse.  In
1147 he announced they would not admit any proofs regarding religion unless they were from the scriptures themselves.  These Henericians
were named heretics by the pope.    

    Not long after, Peter Waldo of Lyons picked up this movement, and the followers were then called Waldenses, a name that some still
carry in the 20th century.  

    During this time, Bernard of Clairvaux wrote what would later be set to music to feed the hunger of Christians centuries later.  Among
them was:

Jesus, the very thought of Thee
With sweetness fills my breast;
But sweeter far Thy face to see,
And in Thy presence rest.

              and

Jesus, Thou joy of loving hearts,
Thou Fount of life, Thou Light of men,
From the best bliss that earth imparts,
We turn unfilled to Thee again.

Thy truth unchanged hath ever stood;
Thou savest those that on Thee call;
To them that seek Thee, Thou art good,
To them that find Tee, all in all!


    With Pope Adrian, in 1154 persecution arose in Italy.  A German named Arnold visited Rome and preached against the corruptions and
additions that had been made to the New Testament church by the church at Rome.  The pope ordered him to leave Rome, so he returned
to Germany and kept preaching the same thing.

    One of three royalty of Germany owed the pope a favor and returned Arnold to him.  There at Apulia, he and his friends were burned at
the stake.  

    Encenas, a Spaniard raised in Rome, began preaching against the papacy.  He was arrested for having a New Testament in Spanish and
imprisoned.  He escaped and fled to Germany.  

    Faninus became a Protestant Waldense and preached to others.  He was arrested and sentenced to death.  His executioners were
amazed at his remarkable happiness.  He replied that Jesus' suffering and death freed his followers from fear of the same.  He was then
strangled and burned.  

    Dominicus, a soldier, became Protestant and preached the Gospel in its purity.  When arrested and asked, "Will you renounce your
doctrines?" he replied, "My doctrines!  I maintain no doctrines of my own; what I preach are the doctrines of Christ, and for those I will
forfeit my blood, and even think myself happy to suffer for the sake of my Redeemer."  He was then tortured and hanged.  

    
Galeacius near St. Angelo, preached against the papacy.  He was arrested and burned to death.

   In the middle of this century, Bernard of Cluny (Chany) and Morlaix, an English-Frenchman, wrote this hymn:


Jerusalem the golden, with milk and honey blest,
Beneath thy contemplation sink heart and voice opprest....
They stand, those halls of Zion, all jubilant with song,
So bright with many an angel and all the martyr throng.


    At the same time, the Roman Church ordered that laity not be permitted to read scriptures.  Both efforts failed to eliminate them.  
Instead, their numbers grew, not only in France but all over Europe.  

    The pope sent for volunteers all over Europe to get rid of the Albigenses, and promised paradise to anyone who joined his Holy War for
forty days.  

    During this century, baptism by pouring or sprinkling began to be widely accepted.  

    In 1177, the church determined the minimum age for a bishop be thirty years of age.  It also decided that the pope must have a two-third
approval of the cardinals to be elected.  

                                                                 ORDAINED MINIMUM AGE FOR BISHOPS  

                                                          ORDAINED ELECTION PERCENTAGE FOR POPES  

    In 1198 Innocent III became pope and was the most politically powerful pope in history.  He was the first to declare that he was the
representative of Christ both in the church and in the entire world.   

                                                  INTRODUCED POPE IS VICAR-IOUSLY CHRIST ON EARTH  
                                                                           NOT WIDELY ACCEPTED  

    To regain control of "the earth," he manipulated future kings of Germany and France, but he could not control King John of England.  So
he excommunicated the King of England and refused to allow any Englishman to celebrate any of the sacraments.  

    About this time, Bernard of Clairvaux, France, wrote this which was set to music four centuries later and is sung throughout the world
today:


O sacred head, now wounded
With grief and shame weighed down;
How art Thou pale with anguish,
With sore abuse and scorn?

How does that visage languish
Which once was bright as morn!
What language shall I borrow
To thank Thee, dearest Friend,

For this Thy dying sorrow,
Thy pity without end?
O make me Thine forever;
And should I fainting be,

Lord, let me never, never
Outlive my love to Thee.


    One of Pope Innocent's earlier teachers, Huguccio of Bologna, came to believe that the pope could err, so the church should actually be
run by a council representing all the members, and the pope had to obey the council.  This was the seed of a Reformation Movement called
"conciliarism" referring to councils ruling the church.  But few people had the courage to agree with him.

   Innocent offered indulgences to troops who marched on his behalf to protect southern Italy and to conquer "heretics" in southern France.  
This would be his second crusade.  

    Also that year the pope preached for a third crusade which was organized among knights of various countries.  In 1212 was the
Children's Crusade.  King Andrew of Hungry launched another crusade in 1217 after the Fourth Lateran Council declared it.  The sixth
crusade was led by Emperor Frederick II of Spain in 1227.   

    The seventh crusade was led by King Louis IV of France in 1249.  The eighth crusade was led by Prince Edward of England.  This last
crusade was the final one and the European Christians left the Holy Land in the control of the Moslems.)  

    It was during this time that a "Christmas" hymn was written (no one celebrated Christmas at this time.)


O come, O come, Emmanuel,
And ransom captive Israel....
O come, Thou Branch of Jesse's stem,
Unto Thine own, and rescue them!

         

                                   ENDNOTES

[1].  Cruse, Christian F., Translator, The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus, Baker Book House, 1955, pg. 42-43, 48-51,
58, 63-65, 82, 101-107, 116-117; and....  

Forbush, William B., editor,
Fox's Book of Martyrs, Zondervan Publishing House, 1968, pg. 1-5  

[2].  Fox, pg. 14  

[3].  Fox, pg. 18

                                 BIBLIOGRAPHY

D'Aubigne, J. H. Merle, History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, The Religious Tract Society, London, 1846  

The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1971  

Encyclopedia Britannica, William Benton Publisher, Chicago, 1966  

Forbush, William B., Editor,
Fox's Book of Martyrs, Zondervan  Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1926  

Goold, G. P., Editor,
Bede Historical Works:  Ecclesiastical  History of the English Nation, Vol. I and II  

Keyes, Nelson B.,
Story of the Bible World, Reader's Digest Assn,  Pleasantville, NY, 1962  

Lightfoot, J.B., Editor,
The Apostolic Fathers, Baker Book House,  Grand Rapids, 1965  

McDonald, William J., Editor,
The New Catholic Encyclopedia,  McGraw-Hill, Chicago, 1962  

North, James B.,
From Pentecost to the Present, College Press Publishing, Joplin, Mo., 1983  

Simon, Edith,
Great Ages of Man:  The Reformation, Time-Life Books, NY, 1968  

Burrage, Henry S., [Ana]
Baptist Hymn Writers and their Hymns, Brown Thurston & Co., Portland, Maine, 1889  

Wells, H. G.,
The Outline of History, Garden City Books, NY, 1961