Encyclopedia Britannica Dictionary:  "MUSIC.  The science and art of the rhythmic combination of tones, VOCAL OR INSTRUMENTAL, embracing melody and harmony."




About 1000 BC (1500 years after Moses gave the Law), David divided up the priests by duties since there were hundreds of them by this time.  With God's guidance, he also began additional forms of worship for when the Temple, a permanent stone structure, was built to replace the tabernacle (tent of worship).




6:31f                (pg. 395)  The musicians ministered with music in front of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting, until Solomon built the temple of the Lord in Jerusalem.  They performed their duties according to the _____________________________ laid down for them.


6:33, 38f          Heman, the musician, was a Kohathite and grandson of what great judge of Israel?  ___________________________  His clan was of Kohath, the son of Levi.


6:39, 42           At Heman's right hand was __________________________.  His clan was of Gershon, the son of Levi.  


6:44, 46           At Heman's left hand was E__________________________.  His clan was of Merari, the son of Levi.


15:5                 How many musicians were in the clan of Kohath?  ___________________


15:6                 How many musicians were in the clan of Merari?  ___________________


15:7                 How many musicians were in the clan of Gershon?


15:16               David told the Levites to appoint (ordain) musicians among them as __________________, accompanied by musical _____________________.  Besides these two categories of music, are there any others?  ______________


15:17               What three men did the Levites appoint (ordain)?  ____________________________________________________


15:19               What instrument were Heman, Asaph and Ethan to play?  _____________________________________


15:20               What instrument were the next relatives to play?  ____________________________


15:21               What instrument were the next men to play?  ____________________________


15:22, 27         Who was the choir director?  _______________________________


16:4                 David appointed some of the Levites to do what four things?  (1)  Minister before the ________________________________, (2) make _________________________________, (3) give thanks, and (4) praise ___________________________.


16:5                 Asaph, the orchestra leader, was to sound the ____________________________ [set the tempo] and the others were to play the _______________________________ and ______________________________.


16:6                 Regularly two other men were to blow the _____________________________ before the ark.


16:7                 Who supplied them with their first song of praise?  _______________________________


16:37               This orchestra ministered before the ark regularly, every _________________ as required.


                        If we adopt this Old Testament regulation, what must we have in the church building every day?



16:42               Heman and Jeduthun were responsible for sounding the ________________________________ and _________________________________ and for playing the other _______________________________________.


23:5                 How many, if they all performed at once, were in the Temple orchestra?  ______________________


23:30               The musicians were required to stand every __________________________ to thank and praise the Lord.  they were to do the same every __________________________________.


23:31               Furthermore, they were to perform whenever ________________________________________ were presented on Sabbaths and at New Moon festivals and at appointed feasts.  They were to serve before the Lord __________________________________ and in the proper _________________________________________ and in the way ________________________________________ for them.


25:1                 Many years after David brought the ark to Jerusalem and when he was about to die, he determined the following would serve as musicians in the temple:  ____________________________________________________________  (apparently Ethan had died by this time).


                        They were to prophesy in song, accompanied by what three specified instruments?  _________________________



25:6                 The music of the temple was required to include what three instruments?  ________________



25:7                 How many of the 4000 musicians noted above were trained and skilled in music?  ___________________





5:13                 When the temple was completed under David's son, Solomon, and the Ark of the Covenant delivered to the Temple, the Levites praised God with full orchestra and chorus.  They were dressed in fine ____________________________________________ and played what three instruments?_____________________________________________________________________.


                        Did they sing in harmony or unison?  ___________________________________


                        God showed his approval when the ________________ of the Lord ____________________ the temple.



29:25               Whose command were they following by playing these four instruments in the Temple worship?






Hebrews 7:22               (pg. 1165)  In the Christian era we have a ________________________ covenant. 


Hebrews 8:13               By calling this covenant "new," Jesus has made the first one _______________________.


Hebrews 10:1               That old law was only a ________________________ of the good things that are coming - not the __________________________ themselves.


Leviticus 21:1,10,21     (pg. 118)  In the O.T., high priests were appointed (anointed/ordained) from among the priests, the descendants of who?  ______________________________


Hebrews 7:24-26         Jesus has become our permanent high _______________________.


Lev. 23:26; 16:2,17      (pg. 120, 112)  How often did the Day of Atonement occur?  ____________________  How often could the high priest enter the Most Holy Place?  ____________________


Hebrews 9:11, 24         Where is the Most Holy Place under the Christian testament?  ___________________


Lev. 16:6f, 24               What did the high priest sacrifice under the old testament?  ____________________


Hebrews 10:4, 10         Who was sacrificed under the new testament?  ___________________________  He was also called what (John 1:35)?  ______________________________________________


1 Chron. 15:3, 16:1      Where was the tabernacle (tent of worship) under King David?  ___________________


2 Chron. 3:1                 Where was the permanent temple under King Solomon?  ________________________


Hebrews 9:11               Where is the tabernacle/temple under the new testament?  _______________________


Exodus 26:31f              (pg. 80)  What was behind the curtain under the old testament?  _________________


Hebrews 10:20             (pg. 1168)  Who became the curtain under the new testament?  __________________


Lev. 16:14                    (pg. 113)  What was the high priest to sprinkle the blood on under the old testament?  ______________________________


Hebrews 10:22             (pg. 1168)  What is the blood sprinkled on under the new testament?  _____________


Exodus 30:7                 (pg. 84)  Incense was offered which times of the day under the old testament?  ___________________________________


Revelation 8:4               (pg. 1197)  What is the incense under the new testament?  ______________________



What about worship?  Hebrews 13:14 (pg. 1171) says the music part of our worship is to offer to God our sacrifice of praise -- the fruit of our lips.  The service is led by priests and all Christians are priests (1 Peter 2:5, pg. 1177).  Romans 12:1 (pg. 1100) says we are to offer our bodies as daily sacrifices instead of the daily sacrifices offered in the Temple.


If we decide to keep part of the Old Testament forms of worship, we must keep them all.  James 2:10 (pg. 1173) says, "Whoever keeps the ___________________ law, yet stumbles at just _______________ point, is guilty of breaking ______________ of it."  Thus, if we revert to O.T. forms of worship, it must also include animal sacrifices, etc.  Colossians 2:14 (pg. 1143) says God nailed all these written laws to the cross with our sins.


EPHESIANS 5:19 (pg. 1136) tells us how to sing and what kind of instrument we are to accompany our singing with:  "SPEAK to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs.  SING and MAKE MUSIC IN YOUR HEART to the Lord.  In the original Greek, the word "melody" is "psallo" which means a stringed instrument.  This scripture is telling us to play on the instrument of our heart. 


God was specific when he designated singers and players in the Old Testament.  Did he forget something when he made his designations in the New Testament?  He specified sing in these verses:  Romans 15:9 (pg. 1103), 1 Corinthians 14:15 (pg. 1115), Ephesians 5:19 (pg. 1136), Colossians 3:16 (pg. 1144), Hebrews 2:12 (pg. 1162), James 5:13 (pg. 1175).  He never specified which instruments to play, something he always did previously.  Examples of music in the early church and with Jesus himself always say sing, but never say play:  Matthew 26:30 (pg. 963), Mark 14:26 (pg. 985), Acts 16:25 (pg. 1074). 


The only playing mentioned in the New Testament is in heaven where is also located the altar of incense and other furnishings of the Temple.  All of this, Hebrews explains, is symbolic of the higher spiritual level of worship.


Some may say that the singing sounds better with an instrument.  Using that same logic, we could say the Lord's Supper would taste better if we had lemon pie instead of unleavened bread.  Who are we worshipping?  Ourselves or God?  Who are we trying to please?  Ourselves or God?  Who made the rules?  Ourselves or God?  Colossians 2:8 and 23 (pg. 1143) warns of self-will worship. 


Why would we want to be satisfied with the material, when we can have the spiritual on a higher plane, as explained in Hebrews 10:1.  The material things are not reality; things on the spiritual level are reality.






Exodus 15:20f - Then Miriam the prophetess, Aaron's sister, took a tambourine in her hand, and all the women followed her, with tambourines and dancing.  Miriam sang to them:  "Sing to the Lord, for he is highly exalted."


2 Samuel 6:16 - As the ark of the Lord was entering the City of David....King David leaping and dancing before the Lord.


1 Chronicles 15:29 - As the ark of the covenant of the Lord was entering the City of David....King David dancing and celebrating.


Psalm 30:11f - You turned my wailing into dancing; you removed my sackcloth and clothed me with joy, that my heart may sing to you and not be silent.  O Lord my God, I will give you thanks forever.


Psalm 149:3 - Let them praise his name with dancing and make music to him with tambourine and harp.


Psalm 150:3f - Praise him with the sounding of the trumpet, praise him with the harp and lyre, praise him with tambourine and dancing, praise him with the strings and flute, praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals.




Matthew 11:16f - To what can I compare this generation?  They are like CHILDREN sitting in the MARKETPLACES and calling out to others:  "We played the flute for you and you did not dance; we sang a dirge and you did not mourn."


Matthew 14:6 - On Herod's birthday the daughter of Herodias danced for them and pleased Herod so much.


Mark 6:22 - When the daughter of Herodias came in and danced, she pleased Herod and his dinner guests.


Luke 7:32 - They are like children sitting in the marketplace and calling out to each other:  "We played the flute for you and you did not dance; we sang a dirge and you did not cry.


Luke 15:25f - Meanwhile the older son was in the field.  When he came near the house, he heard music and dancing....Your has come and your father has killed the fatted calf.







Volume 10


Instruments in Worship

            Although Josephus tells of the wonderful effects produced in the Temple by the use of instruments, the first Christians were of too spiritual a fibre to substitute lifeless instruments for or to use them to accompany the human voice. Clement of Alexandria severely condemns the use of instruments even at Christian banquets. St. Chrysostum sharply contrasts the customs of the Christians when they had full freedom with those of the Jews of the Old Testament.  (pg. 648-652)

For almost a thousand years Gregorian chant, without any instrumental or harmonic addition was the only music used in connection with the liturgy. The organ, in its primitive and rude form, was the first, and for a long time the sole, instrument used to accompany the chant…. The church has never encouraged and at most only tolerated the use of instruments….She holds up as her ideal the unaccompanied chant, and polyphonic, a-cappella style. The Sistine Chapel has not even an organ.  (pg. 657-688)



            The organ has never been prescribed for use in the Roman Catholic Church by Church law; it has apparently been used in the Church consistently since the 9th century.  By the 13th century the organ was certainly in general use.  (pg. 129-131, 746)


            [In 1903 Pope Pius X opposed the use of instruments in worship, although he did approve of the organ.  In 1939 Pope Pius XII relaxed this prohibition, allowing instrumental music that was executed artistically.]






About 1250 - THOMAS AQUINAS - CATHOLIC:  "Our church does not use musical instruments as harps and psaltries, to praise God withal, that she may not seem to Judaize" (Bingham's Ant., Vol. 3, pg. 137).


About 1500 - DESIDERIUS ERASMUS, a contemporary of Martin Luther and one of the most renowned classical scholars of his age:  "The church rings with the noise of trumpets, pipes, and dulcimers; and human voices strive to bear their part with them.  Men run to church as to a theater, to have their ears tickled.  And for this end organ makers are hired with great salaries" (Commentary on 1 Corinthians iv.19).


About 1525 - ULRICH ZWINGLY, REFORMED CHURCHES, influenced the following events:  "On Sunday the 19th of January [1528], the day on which the doctrine of the Mass was attacked...a priest...stopped in astonishment at Zwingle's words....stripped off his priestly ornaments and throwing them on the altar, exclaimed, 'I can celebrate it [Catholic Mass version of Lord's Supper] no longer!'...some men, excited by the passion of the moment, fell upon his beloved organ, an accomplice in their eyes of so many superstitious rites, and violently broke it to pieces.  No more mass, no more organ, no more anthems!  A new Supper and new hymns shall succeed the rites of popery."  (History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, J. H. Merle D'Augigne, 1835, Translated by H. White B.A. of Canterbury, M.A. and Ph.D. of Heidelberg, 1844, Vol. XIII, pg. 606).


About 1550 - JOHN CALVIN - BAPTIST, PRESBYTERIAN, REFORMED CHURCHES:  "Musical instruments in celebrating the praises of God would be no more suitable than the burning of incense, the lightning of lamps, and the restoration of the other shadows of the law.  The Papists therefore have foolishly borrowed this, as well as many other things, from the Jews.  Men who are fond of outward pomp may delight in that noise; but the simplicity which God recommends to us by the apostles is far more pleasing to Him" (Commentary on Psalm 33).        


Calvin further said in discussing the timbrels of Miriam, Moses' sister, "Musical instruments were among the legal ceremonies which Christ at his coming abolished; and, therefore we, under the Gospel, must maintain a greater simplicity" (Four Last Books of Moses I:263).


ABOUT 1550 - JOHN KNOX - PRESBYTERIAN:  "This principle not only purified the church of human inventions and popish corruptions, but restored plain singing of psalms, unaccompanied by instrumental music." (Selected Writings of John Knox: Public Epistles, Treatises, and Expositions to the Year 1559)


About 1775 - JOHN WESLEY, METHODIST: "I have no objection to instruments of music in our chapels provided they are neither seen nor heard."  (Methodist Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Vol. II, pg. 686)


About 1800 - ADAM CLARK - METHODIST:  "I have never known instrumental music to be productive of any good in the worship of God and I have reason to believe that it has been productive of much evil.  Music as a science I esteem and admire, but instruments of music in the house of God I abominate and abhor.  This is the abuse of music and I here register my protest against all such corruption in the worship of that Infinite Spirit who requires his followers to worship him in spirit and in truth" (Commentary on Amos 6:5).

About 1850 - CHARLES SPURGEON, BAPTIST:  "We should like to see all the pipes of the organs in our nonconformist places of worship either ripped open or compactly filled with concrete.  The human voice is so transcendently superior to all that wind or strings can accomplish that it is a shame to degrade its harmonies by association with blowing and scraping."  Also, We might as well pray by machinery as sing by it” and “Israel was at school, and used childish things to help her learn; but in these days when Jesus gives us spiritual food, one can make melody without strings and pipes… we do not need them. That would hinder rather than help our praise. Sing unto Him. This is the sweetest and best music. No instrument like the human voice.”  (Commentary on Psalm 42)

1920 - H. G. WELLS:  “The music of the early Christian centuries was devout and enthusiastic rather than elaborate....'A Christian maiden,' said St. Jerome, 'ought not to know what a lyre or a flute is.'  Psalm singing and instrumentation were taken over by the Christians from the Jewish services.”  (The Outline of History, Book 6, Ch. 28, pg. 448)


1996PRESBYTERIANS:  See also containing Presbyterian Watchman And Observer review of article on “ORGANS”, Richmond, VA,  February 22, 1849, Volume IV, No. 28.